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The following two passages are adapted from a special issue of a scientific journal, in which the origins of human bipedalism (walking on two legs rather than four) are discussed.

Passage 1

Passage 2

1. The author mentions primate ancestors (lines 3-4) in order to

  • A. suggest that scientists have wondered about bipedalism since before written history.
  • B. doubt the claims of evolutionary biologists who cite monkeys as human ancestors.
  • C. establish a link between two groups that shows how significantly one of those groups has changed.
  • D. answer the question posed in the second half of the sentence.

2. In Passage 1, the reference to "two free limbs" (line 9) serves to

  • A. emphasize that the two limbs used for walking have grown much stronger.
  • B. explain why animals that walk on all fours cannot go grocery shopping.
  • C. criticize bipedal animals for not taking full advantage of all of their limbs.
  • D. imply that bipedal animals can use some of their limbs for higher-order functions.

3. As used in line 16, "manually" most nearly means

  • A. without technology.
  • B. by hand.
  • C. with difficulty.
  • D. by humans.

4. In discussing the nature of human handiness, the author of Passage 1 suggests that

  • A. humans' intellectual ability is inseparable from skillful use of hands.
  • B. humans' hands were useless for a long while before humans developed sufficient intellectual sophistication.
  • C. human dexterity took approximately 4 to 7 million years to develop.
  • D. humans would be just as intelligent if they wrote with their feet rather than their hands.

5. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

  • A. Lines 1-3 ("One…four")
  • B. Lines 14-18 ("They…do")
  • C. Lines 24-30 ("The…dexterity")
  • D. Lines 30-35 ("Human…fours")

6. As used in line 53, "brook" most nearly means

  • A. stream.
  • B. allow.
  • C. flow.
  • D. block.

7. The third paragraph of Passage 2 (lines 54-65) primarily serves to

  • A. question research methods that would put monkeys on treadmills.
  • B. criticize the author of Passage 1 for his outmoded research.
  • C. introduce new findings that offer a new take on an old debate.
  • D. give a detailed account of an average laboratory research setup.

8. From the information presented in Passage 2, it can be inferred that

  • A. humans and primates stemmed from a common ancestor.
  • B. the author of Passage 2 rejects Darwin's theory of human evolution.
  • C. human ancestors required a certain level of intelligence before they could see the efficiency of bipedalism.
  • D. the debate surrounding human bipedalism was resolved in 2007.

9. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

  • A. Lines 39-40 ("After…bias")
  • B. Lines 44-47 ("It is…cause")
  • C. Lines 54-56 ("A study…energy")
  • D. Lines 56-59 ("Three…humans")

10. The authors of both passages would most likely agree with which of the following?

  • A. Bipedalism and human intelligence evolved at the same time in history.
  • B. If primates were to walk on two legs, they would expend less energy.
  • C. Primates would expend as much energy as humans if the two went grocery shopping.
  • D. Human use of hands and human intelligence are likely connected in the evolutionary process.

11. What is the primary difference in the way Passages 1 and 2 incorporate new information?

  • A. Passage 1 uses contemporary analogies while Passage 2 uses modern scientific research.
  • B. Passage 1 dismisses newer scientific research while Passage 2 uses it sparingly.
  • C. Passage 1 uses new scientific research while Passage 2 is more interested in deductive reasoning.
  • D. Passage 1 is eager to incorporate new materials while Passage 2 dismisses any theories that come after Darwin's.