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Woodrow Wilson Speech
This passage is adapted from a speech given by President Woodrow Wilson to Congress on January 8, 1918. Here Wilson proposes a 14-point program for world peace. These 14 points became the basis for peace negotiations at the end of World War I.
It will be our wish and purpose that the processesof peace, when they are begun, shall be absolutelyopen and that they shall involve and permit hence-forth no secret understandings of any kind.05The day of conquest and aggrandizement is goneby; so is also the day of secret covenants enteredinto in the interest of particular governments andlikely at some unlooked-for moment to upset thepeace of the world. It is this happy fact, now clear10to the view of every public man whose thoughtsdo not still linger in an age that is dead and gone,which makes it possible for every nation whosepurposes are consistent with justice and the peaceof the world to avow now or at any other time the15objects it has in view.We entered this war because violations of righthad occurred which touched us to the quick andmade the life of our own people impossible unlessthey were corrected.… What we demand in this20war, therefore, is nothing peculiar to ourselves. Itis that the world be made fit and safe to live in; andparticularly that it be made safe for every peace-loving nation which, like our own, wishes to live itsown life, determine its own institutions, be assured25of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples ofthe world.… The programme of the world's peace,therefore, is our programme; and that programme,the only possible programme, as we see it, is this:I. Open covenants of peace … with no private30international understandings of any kind butdiplomacy shall proceed always frankly andin the public view.II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon theseas … alike in peace and in war, except as35the seas may be closed in whole or in part byinternational action for the enforcement ofinternational covenants.III. The removal, so far as possible, of alleconomic barriers and the establishment of40an equality of trade conditions among all thenations consenting.…IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken thatnational armaments will be reduced to thelowest point consistent with domestic safety.45V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impar-tial adjustment of all colonial claims.…VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory andsuch a settlement of all questions affectingRussia as will secure the best and freest coop-50eration of the other nations of the world.VII. Belgium … must be evacuated and restored,without any attempt to limit the sovereigntywhich she enjoys in common with all otherfree nations.…55VIII. All French territory should be freed and theinvaded portions restored.…IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italyshould be effected along clearly recognizablelines of nationality.60X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary … shouldbe accorded the freest opportunity to autono-mous development.XI. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should beevacuated; occupied territories restored; and65Serbia accorded free and secure access tothe sea.…XII. The Turkish portion of the present OttomanEmpire should be assured a secure sover-eignty, but the other nationalities which are70now under Turkish rule should be assured anundoubted security of life.…XIII. An independent Polish state should beerected which should include the territoriesinhabited by indisputably Polish populations.75… [The state] should be assured a free andsecure access to the sea.…XIV. A general association of nations must beformed under specific covenants for thepurpose of affording mutual guarantees of80political independence and territorial integ-rity to great and small states alike.
1. Based on the introductory paragraphs, which choice best identifies Wilson's purpose in making this speech?
2. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
3. As used in line 31, "frankly" most nearly means
4. Based on the passage, it can be reasonably inferred that in the past,
5. Which choice provides the best support for the answer to the previous question?
6. As used in line 13, "consistent" most nearly means
7. In lines 45-46 ("A free … colonial claims"), Wilson argues that to preserve peace, nations must
8. Points VI through VIII serve as evidence to support which claim made by Wilson throughout the speech?
9. Which of the following approaches to international relations is most similar to Wilson's approach?
10. The main flow of Wilson's argument can be described as
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