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The following passage is adapted from President John F. Kennedy's 1962 speech, which has come to be called "We Choose to Go to the Moon." Kennedy delivered the speech at Rice University in Texas.
We meet at a college noted for knowledge, in acity noted for progress, in a State noted for strength,and we stand in need of all three, for we meet in anhour of change and challenge, in a decade of hope05and fear, in an age of both knowledge and igno-rance. The greater our knowledge increases, thegreater our ignorance unfolds.…No man can fully grasp how far and how fast wehave come, but condense, if you will, the 50,000 years10of man's recorded history in a time span of but ahalf-century. Stated in these terms, we know very littleabout the first forty years, except at the end of themadvanced man had learned to use the skins of animalsto cover them. Then about ten years ago, under this15standard, man emerged from his caves to constructother kinds of shelter. Only five years ago man learnedto write and use a cart with wheels. Christianity beganless than two years ago. The printing press came thisyear, and then less than two months ago, during this20whole fifty-year span of human history, the steamengine provided a new source of power.Newton explored the meaning of gravity. Lastmonth electric lights and telephones and auto-mobiles and airplanes became available. Only last25week did we develop penicillin and television andnuclear power, and now if America's new spacecraftsucceeds in reaching Venus, we will have literallyreached the stars before midnight tonight.This is a breathtaking pace, and such a pace30cannot help but create new ills as it dispels old,new ignorance, new problems, new dangers. Surelythe opening vistas of space promise high costs andhardships, as well as high reward.So it is not surprising that some would have us35stay where we are a little longer to rest, to wait. Butthis city of Houston, this State of Texas, this coun-try of the United States was not built by those whowaited and rested and wished to look behind them.This country was conquered by those who moved40forward—and so will space.William Bradford, speaking in 1630 of thefounding of the Plymouth Bay Colony, said that allgreat and honorable actions are accompanied withgreat difficulties, and both must be enterprised and45overcome with answerable courage.If this capsule history of our progress teachesus anything, it is that man, in his quest for knowl-edge and progress, is determined and cannot bedeterred. The exploration of space will go ahead,50whether we join in it or not, and it is one of thegreat adventures of all time.…This generation does not intend to founder inthe backwash of the coming age of space. We meanto be a part of it—we mean to lead it. For the eyes55of the world now look into space, to the moon andto the planets beyond, and we have vowed that weshall not see it governed by a hostile flag of con-quest, but by a banner of freedom and peace. Wehave vowed that we shall not see space filled with60weapons of mass destruction, but with instrumentsof knowledge and understanding.Yet the vows of this nation can only be fulfilled ifwe in this nation are first.… In short, our leader-ship in science and in industry, our hopes for peace65and security, our obligations to ourselves as wellas others, all require us to make this effort … tobecome the world's leading space-faring nation.We set sail on this new sea because there is newknowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won,70and they must be won and used for the progress ofall people.…There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflictin outer space as yet. Its hazards are hostile tous all. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind,75and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation maynever come again. But why, some say, the moon?Why choose this as our goal? And they may wellask why climb the highest mountain? Why,thirty-five years ago, fly the Atlantic? Why does80Rice play Texas?1We choose to go to the moon. We choose to goto the moon in this decade and do the other things,not because they are easy, but because they arehard, because that goal will serve to organize and85measure the best of our energies and skills.…
1This is a college sports reference. Kennedy's audience (at Rice University) would have understood the University of Texas at Austin to be the challenging athletic opponent of Rice.
1. What is Kennedy's purpose for giving this speech?
2. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
3. As used in line 44, "enterprised" most nearly means
4. What does Kennedy suggest about the motivations of other countries attempting to reach the moon?
5. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
6. As used in line 52, "founder" most nearly means
7. According to Kennedy, what is true of progress?
8. The statement in lines 63-67 ("In short, … space-faring nation") is important to the overall argument in its suggestion that
9. Based on the information in the passage, to what group can Kennedy's audience best be compared?
10. Kennedy most likely included paragraphs 2 and 3 in order to
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