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Scientists worldwide have been workingdiligently to advance hydrogen as a renewableenergy source. Hydrogen, the most abundantelement in the universe, is found primarily with05oxygen in water. Because it can be safely used asfuel, it is a candidate for gasoline replacement inpassenger vehicles.The potential benefits to moving away frompetroleum-based fuel are plentiful. Since hydrogen10can be produced within the United States, discoveringways to safely and economically switch to hydrogenfuel would drastically reduce our dependency onother petroleum-producing nations. In additionto making us more independent, hydrogen produces15no pollution, including greenhouse gasses, whenused as fuel. For this reason alone, forward-thinkingscientists have made it a priority to invent new ways touse hydrogen.Until now, there have been several challenges20preventing hydrogen from becoming a mainstreamform of clean energy. In the United States, enginesthat run on hydrogen are much more expensivethan gasoline. Additionally, it is difficult to storeenough hydrogen to get comparable mileage to a25gasoline vehicle. However, these factors have notbeen the biggest drawback in producing hydro-gen for use in fuel cells; the biggest drawback hasbeen that fossil fuels were needed to generate largeamounts of hydrogen. Relying on fossil fuels to30produce this element nearly negates the environ-mental benefit behind the concept.Recently, a new method has been discovered,allowing scientists to create large quantities of theelement using lower amounts of energy derived35from renewable sources. As in traditional methods,scientists employ electrolysis, a process duringwhich electricity is used to break the bonds betweenthe atoms found in water by passing a currentthrough the water via a semiconductor. Once the40water molecules are broken into separate hydrogenand oxygen atoms, both are released as individualgasses and the hydrogen can be harvested.When people think of solar power, huge panelsusually come to mind, the type of panels that could45not be used to power consumer vehicles in a wayequivalent to gasoline. However, scientists haverecently been successful at employing solar power asthe catalyst in electrolysis, harvesting energy fromthe sun and using it to break apart water molecules.50The same scientists who made this achievement thenbuilt a semiconductor out of affordable, oxide-basedmaterials. When these two advances are coupled,they also reduce the economic and environmentalcost of generating and processing hydrogen.55Another bonus to this new method of produc-tion is that it is significantly more efficient thanolder production methods. The team of researchersattained the most efficient solar-to-fuel conversion todate, and they did it without using cost-prohibitive60materials.There are still several challenges to be overcomebefore hydrogen is a viable gasoline replacement.This new method of creation, though, is a hugestep in the right direction. There are many ongoing65research initiatives that aim to make hydrogenextraction even more cost-effective, as well as easyto store. When these issues are solved, hydrogen willbecome a fuel that works for humanity and the earthat the same time.
1. With which of the following statements would the author most likely agree?
2. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
3. According to the passage, which of the following is true of hydrogen?
4. As used in line 2, "diligently" most nearly means
5. The passage most strongly suggests that which of the following is true of petroleum-based fuel?
6. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
7. In paragraph 2, why does the author explain that hydrogen energy will reduce our dependency on petroleum-producing nations?
8. As used in line 34, "derived" most nearly means
9. The passage most strongly suggests that which of the following is true about methods of extracting hydrogen from water?
10. It can be reasonably inferred from the information in the passage and the graphic that
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