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Treatment for Paralysis Passage
According to a study conducted by the Christopherand Dana Reeve Foundation, more than six millionpeople in the United States suffer from debilitatingparalysis. That's close to one person in every fifty05who suffers from a loss of the ability to move or feelin areas of his or her body. Paralysis is often causedby illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, orinjuries to the spinal cord. Research scientists havemade advances in the treatment of paralysis, which10means retraining affected individuals to becomeas independent as possible. Patients learn how touse wheelchairs and prevent complications that arecaused by restricted movement. This retraining iskey in maintaining paralytics' quality of life;15however, an actual cure for paralysis has remainedelusive—until now.In 2014, surgeons in Poland collaborated withthe University College London's Institute of Neurol-ogy to treat a Polish man who was paralyzed from20the chest down as a result of a spinal cord injury.The scientists chose this patient for their study be-cause of the countless hours of physical therapy hehad undergone with no signs of progress. Twenty-one months after their test subject's initial spinal25cord injury, his condition was considered completeas defined by the American Spinal Injury Associa-tion (ASIA)'s Impairment Scale. This meant that heexperienced no sensory or motor function in thesegments of his spinal cord nearest to his injury.30The doctors used a technique refined during fortyyears of spinal cord research on rats. They removedone of two of the patient's olfactory bulbs, which arestructures found at the top of the human nose. Fromthis structure, samples of olfactory ensheathing cells,35responsible for a portion of the sense of smell, wereharvested. These cells allow the olfactory system torenew its cells over the course of a human life. It isbecause of this constant regeneration that scientistschose these particular cells to implant into the40patient's spinal cord. After being harvested, the cellswere reproduced in a culture. Then, the cells wereinjected into the patient's spinal cord in 100 mini-injections above and below the location of his injury.Four strips of nerve tissue were then placed across a45small gap in the spinal cord.After surgery, the patient underwent a tailor-madeneurorehabilitation program. In the nineteenmonths following the operation, not only did thepatient experience no adverse effects, but his50condition improved from ASIA's class A to classC. Class C is considered an incomplete spinal cordinjury, meaning that motor function is preserved to acertain extent and there is some muscle activity. Thepatient experienced increased stability in the trunk55of his body, as well as partial recovery of voluntarymovements in his lower extremities. As a result, hewas able to increase the muscle mass in his thighsand regain sensation in those areas. In late 2014, hetook his first steps with the support of only a walker.60These exciting improvements suggest that thenerve grafts doctors placed in the patient's spinalcord bridged the injured area and prompted theregeneration of fibers. This was the first-everclinical study that showed beneficial effects of cells65transplanted into the spinal cord. The same teamof scientists plans to treat ten more patients usingthis "smell cell" transplant technique. If they havecontinued success, patients around the world canhave both their mobility and their hope restored.
1. The central idea of the passage is primarily concerned with
2. The author includes a description of retraining paralytics in lines 8-13 primarily to
3. Based on the information in the passage, it can be inferred that the author
4. Which choice provides the best support for the answer to the previous question?
5. As used in line 13, "restricted" most nearly means
6. In line 46, the author's use of the word "tailor-made" helps reinforce the idea that
7. It can be reasonably inferred from the passage that
8. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
9. As used in line 30, "refined" most nearly means
10. The success of the patient's treatment was due in large part to
11. The procedure described in which cells from olfactory bulbs are injected into a damaged area of the spinal cord is most analogous to which of the following?
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