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A Sweet Discovery
1 Like most chemists, a laboratory was where Constantin Fahlberg worked on his research. However, the discovery for which he is famous occurred not in the laboratory, but at supper.
2 Chemical compounds are derived from coal tar, which is what Fahlberg began working on as a research chemist in a laboratory at Johns Hopkins University in early 1878. Coal tar was a by-product of steel manufacturing, and compounds derived 3 from them had been used as medicines and in dye formulations. Fahlberg, and others in the laboratory, were studying ways to add different chemicals to molecules found in coal tar to see if the new compounds formed had other useful properties.
One night in June, Fahlberg finished a long day of work; he had been so 4 demanding in his research that he forgot to eat lunch, so he hurried to his supper without stopping to wash his hands. He might have considered hand washing unnecessary because he had not handled any toxic chemicals that day, or he might have just been so hungry he did not think about it. 5
The bread tasted so sweet that Fahlberg thought he might have picked up some cake by mistake. He rinsed out his mouth with water and then patted his mustache dry with a napkin. He was surprised to find that the napkin tasted sweet as well. He took another sip of water and realized that the water now tasted sweet. 6 The bread, napkin, and glass of water had something in common. He then tasted his thumb, and it tasted sweeter than any candy he had ever had.
 Fahlberg rushed back into the lab and began to taste the contents of every beaker he had used that day.  Fortunately, he had not worked with anything poisonous or corrosive, or the story 7 may have a different ending. 8  He had discovered saccharin, which he named for its intense sweetness.  He found a sweet-tasting mixture of chemicals and worked for weeks to isolate the sweet substance from the rest and to determine its chemical composition.  Although it is many times more sweet tasting than sugar, it cannot be used for energy by the body and therefore does not contribute to calories consumed or energy use.  Soon after Fahlberg started 9 making saccharin commercially in 1886, it became popular with people who needed to lose weight and with diabetic patients who needed to avoid sugar. 10
5. Which sentence should be inserted in this position to create an ideal transition to the next paragraph?
8. How should sentence 3 be revised to most clearly and effectively convey the central idea of the paragraph?
10. Where should sentence 4 logically be placed within the paragraph?
11. Which of the following sentences would make the best conclusion to the passage?
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