SAT Writing and Language Practice Test: Coffee: The Buzz on Beans

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Coffee: The Buzz on Beans

Americans love coffee. 1 Some days you can find a coffee shop in nearly every American city. But this wasn't always true. How did coffee, which was first grown in Africa over five hundred years ago, come to America?

The coffee plant, from which makers get the "cherries" that 2 is dried and roasted into what we call beans, first appeared in the East African country Ethiopia, in the province of Kaffa. From there, it spread to the Arabian Peninsula, where the coffeehouse, or qahveh khaneh in Arabic, was very popular. Like spices and cloth, coffee was traded internationally as European explorers reached far lands and 3 establishing shipping routes. The first European coffeehouse opened in Venice, Italy, in 1683, and around that time London 4 displayed over three hundred coffeehouses.

There is no record of coffee being amongst the cargo of the Mayflower, which reached the New World in 1620. It was not until 1668 that the first written reference to coffee in America was made. A beverage was being made from roasted beans and flavored with sugar or honey, and cinnamon. Coffee was then described in the New England colony's official records of 1670. In 1683, William Penn, who lived in a settlement on the Delaware River, wrote of buying supplies of coffee in a 5 New York market, he paid eighteen shillings and nine pence per pound.6

Coffeehouses like those in Europe were soon established in American colonies, and as America expanded westward, coffee consumption grew. In their settlement days, 7 Chicago St. Louis and New Orleans each had famous coffeehouses. By the mid-twentieth century, coffeehouses were abundant. In places like New York and San Francisco, they became 8 confused with counterculture, as a place where intellectuals and artists gathered to share ideas. In American homes, coffee was a social lubricant, bringing people together to socialize as afternoon tea had done in English society. With the invention of the electric coffee pot, it became a common courtesy to ask a guest if she wanted "coffee or tea?"9

However, by the 1950s, U.S. manufacturing did to coffee what it had done to 10 other foods; produced it cheaply, mass-marketed it, and lowered the quality. Coffee was roasted and ground in manufacturing plants and freeze-dried for a long storage life, which compromised its flavor. An "evangelism" began to bring back the original bracing, dark-roasted taste of coffee, and spread to the rest of the world. 11 In every major city of the world, now travelers around the world, expect to be able to grab an uplifting, fresh, and delicious cup of coffee—and they can.

1.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. Many
  • C. The
  • D. These

2.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. are being dried and roasted
  • C. are dried and roasted
  • D. is being dried and roasted

3.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. established
  • C. having established
  • D. was establishing

4.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. bragged
  • C. highlighted
  • D. boasted

5.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. New York market and William Penn
  • C. New York market so he paid
  • D. New York market, paying

6. Which choice most effectively establishes a summative concluding sentence for the paragraph?

  • A. Coffee's appearance in the historical record shows it was becoming more and more established in the New World.
  • B. The colonies probably used more tea than coffee since there are records of it being imported from England.
  • C. William Penn founded Pennsylvania Colony, which became the state of Pennsylvania after the Revolutionary War with England ended.
  • D. The Mayflower did carry a number of items that the colonists needed for settlement, including animals and tools.

7.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. Chicago, St. Louis, and New Orleans
  • C. Chicago, St. Louis, and, New Orleans
  • D. Chicago St. Louis and, New Orleans

8.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. related
  • C. associated
  • D. coupled

9. Which choice most effectively establishes the main topic of the paragraph?

  • A. There were many coffee shops in New York and in Chicago.
  • B. Electric coffee machines changed how people entertained at home.
  • C. Over time, coffee became a part of everyday American life.
  • D. People went to coffehouses to discuss major issues.

10.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. other foods produced
  • C. other foods, produced
  • D. other foods: produced

11.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. Now travelers, in every major city of the world, around the world expect to be able to grab an uplifting, fresh, and delicious cup of coffee—and they can.
  • C. Now in every major city of the world, travelers around the world expect to be able to grab an uplifting, fresh, and delicious cup of coffee—and they can.
  • D. Now travelers around the world expect to be able to grab an uplifting, fresh, and delicious cup of coffee in every major city of the world—and they can.