Full SAT Biology Practice Test 2: Biology-M Test

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Question 20 questions

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1. The table shows the restriction enzyme recognition sites present on a circular piece of DNA 4.0 kilobases (1 kb = 1,000 bases) long.

Which pair of restriction enzymes, used together, would produce a band that travels the farthest on an electropheresis gel?

A. Nde I and Pst I
B. Nde I and Eco RI
C. Sac I and Bam HI
D. Eco RI and Hind III
E. Bam HI and Hind III

2. Which of the following is generally identical in all the somatic cells of an organism?

I. DNA sequences

II. Protein structures

III. RNA sequences

A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. I and II
E. I and III

3. Red blood cells placed in a hypotonic solution will

A. shrink due to osmotic water loss
B. rupture due to the influx of water
C. maintain their shape due to the cell wall
D. swell but avoid rupturing due to the cell wall
E. pump out excess water with the contractile vacuole

4. Animals store energy in which of the following molecular forms?

I. Glucose

II. Glycogen

III. Lipid

IV. Protein

A. I and II
B. II and III
C. I, II, and III
D. II, III, and IV
E. I, II, III, and IV

5. In which phase of the cell cycle does DNA replication take place?

A. G0
B. G1
C. G2
D. M
E. S

6. In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes and ribosomes share which of the following characteristics?

I. They consist of nucleic acid.

II. They consist of protein.

III. They are in the nucleus.

A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. I and II
E. I and III

7. Which of the following is a macromolecule composed of amino acid subunits?

A. Amylase
B. Glycogen
C. Phospholipid
D. Polysaccharide
E. Ribonucleic acid

8. The diagram depicts the movement of an amoeba. Which cellular structure is responsible for the amoeba's movement?

A. Cilia
B. Flagella
C. Cell wall
D. Cytoskeleton
E. Cell membrane

9. Where do the reactions of the Calvin cycle take place?

A. Stroma
B. Cytoplasm
C. Thylakoid membrane
D. Mitochondrial matrix
E. Mitochondrial membrane

10. The net equation for photosynthesis is

A. C6H12O6 + 6O2→6CO2 + 6H2O
B. 6CO2 + 6H2O→C6H12O6 + 6O2
C. C6H12O6 + 6H2O→6CO2 + 6O2H
D. 6CO2 + 6O2→C6H12O6 + 6H2O
E. 6CO2 + C6H12O6→6O2 + 6H2O

11. A codon on the coding strand of a gene is shown below. Which anticodon sequence will bind to the transcribed codon?

5'-ACT-3'

A. 3'-ACU-5'
B. 3'-TGA-5'
C. 3'-UGA-5'
D. 5'-ACU-3'
E. 5'-UGA-3'

12. Which statement describes one difference between hormones and neurotransmitters?

A. Hormones modify cellular activity.
B. Hormones are secreted into the bloodstream.
C. Hormones produce a change in animal behavior.
D. Hormones attach to receptors on the cell surface.
E. Hormones are released in response to external stimuli.

13. The antibiotic tetracycline works by binding to rRNA in prokaryotes. Which cellular activity does tetracycline directly disrupt?

A. Translation
B. Respiration
C. Transcription
D. DNA replication
E. Active transport

14. In cellular respiration, the role of FADH2and NADH is to

A. catalyze the breakdown of glucose to three-carbon sugars
B. carry electrons to the cytochrome membrane proteins
C. catalyze the addition of a phosphate group to ADP
D. act as final electron acceptors in the electron transport chain
E. transport hydrogen ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane

15. Scientists grew E. colibacteria in a nutrient solution containing a heavy, stable isotope of nitrogen, 15N. They then transferred them to a medium with the more common light isotope of nitrogen. Periodically, DNA from the cells was extracted and subjected to density centrifugation. The strain of E. coliused divides once every 20 minutes. The results are illustrated below.

At which time point(s) is the heaviest DNA extracted from the cells?

A. 0 minutes
B. 20 minutes
C. 40 minutes
D. 60 minutes
E. 40 and 60 minutes

16. Scientists grew E. colibacteria in a nutrient solution containing a heavy, stable isotope of nitrogen, 15N. They then transferred them to a medium with the more common light isotope of nitrogen. Periodically, DNA from the cells was extracted and subjected to density centrifugation. The strain of E. coliused divides once every 20 minutes. The results are illustrated below.

After two cell divisions, what types of chains make up the DNA of the cells?

I. Two light-nitrogen chains

II. Two heavy-nitrogen chains

III. One light-nitrogen chain and one heavy-nitrogen chain

A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. I and II
E. I and III

17. Scientists grew E. colibacteria in a nutrient solution containing a heavy, stable isotope of nitrogen, 15N. They then transferred them to a medium with the more common light isotope of nitrogen. Periodically, DNA from the cells was extracted and subjected to density centrifugation. The strain of E. coliused divides once every 20 minutes. The results are illustrated below.

If the scientists were to continue extracting and centrifuging DNA every 20 minutes, which result would describe the DNA bands in the test tubes?

A. The top band would move lower, while the middle band would disappear.
B. The top band would grow thinner, while the middle band would grow thicker.
C. The top and middle bands would both grow thicker and move lower in the tube.
D. The top and middle bands would both grow thicker but remain at the same level.
E. The top band would grow thicker, while the middle band would remain the same.

18. Scientists sequenced a portion of the aspartate transaminase enzyme from different species. The amino acid sequences are shown in the table. Each letter stands for an amino acid. Differences from the human sequence are indicated by bold letters. Missing amino acids are indicated by a dash (–).

Which pair of organisms is most similar in terms of the amino acid sequence shown?

A. Pig and horse
B. Chicken and rat
C. Human and pig
D. Alfalfa and yeast
E. Bacteria and yeast

19. Scientists sequenced a portion of the aspartate transaminase enzyme from different species. The amino acid sequences are shown in the table. Each letter stands for an amino acid. Differences from the human sequence are indicated by bold letters. Missing amino acids are indicated by a dash (–).

All of the following types of mutations could have resulted in the amino acid differences shown EXCEPT

A. a deletion
B. an insertion
C. a missense mutation
D. a silent mutation
E. a substitution

20. Scientists sequenced a portion of the aspartate transaminase enzyme from different species. The amino acid sequences are shown in the table. Each letter stands for an amino acid. Differences from the human sequence are indicated by bold letters. Missing amino acids are indicated by a dash (–).

Which genetic mutation occurred farthest back in time?

A. Insertion of a codon for serine (S)
B. Deletion of a codon for asparagine (N)
C. Conversion of a codon for lysine (K) to one for arginine (R)
D. Conversion of a codon for alanine (A) to one for cysteine (C)
E. Conversion of a codon for leucine (L) to one for methionine (M)