SAT Subject Biology E/M Practice Test 3: Part C

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Question 20 questions

Time 15 minutes

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1.

The hormone labeled Y in the diagram is

A. progesterone, secreted by the corpus luteum after ovulation has occurred
B. progesterone, secreted by the ovary after ovulation has occurred
C. estrogen, secreted by the corpus luteum after ovulation has occurred
D. estrogen, secreted by the ovary after ovulation has occurred
E. estrogen, secreted by the follicle before ovulation occurs

2.

Immediately after fertilization, the zygote begins to undergo rapid cell division. This process is known as

A. blastulation
B. gastrulation
C. neurulation
D. implantation
E. cleavage

3.

From which of the primary germ layers does the nervous system develop?

A. Endoderm
B. Mesoderm
C. Ectoderm
D. Enteroderm
E. Epidermis

4. A barren, rocky community near a lake has virtually no vegetation or animal life. After a period of approximately 75 years, the community boasts a wide variety of flora and fauna, including deciduous trees, deer, and raccoon.

The process which has taken place can best be described as

A. progression
B. succession
C. evolution
D. habitation
E. colonization

5. A barren, rocky community near a lake has virtually no vegetation or animal life. After a period of approximately 75 years, the community boasts a wide variety of flora and fauna, including deciduous trees, deer, and raccoon.

The stable community of deciduous trees and animals is known as the

A. final community
B. climax community
C. apex community
D. summit community
E. composite community

6. A barren, rocky community near a lake has virtually no vegetation or animal life. After a period of approximately 75 years, the community boasts a wide variety of flora and fauna, including deciduous trees, deer, and raccoon.

Usually the first organisms to colonize rocky areas are lichen. These are known as the

A. primary community
B. starter community
C. colony organisms
D. pioneer organisms
E. settler organisms

7. Diuretics are substances that help eliminate water from the body. The effects of various substances were tested on several volunteers. All volunteers had a mass of 70 kg. They drank nothing for eight hours before the test and urinated just prior to ingesting the test substance. The three substances (water, caffeine, and salt) were tested on three separate days. The results are shown in the tables below.

Table 1

Table 2

Table 3

Which of the following substances could be classified as a diuretic?

I. Caffeine

II. Sodium

III. Water

A. I only
B. II only
C. I and II only
D. II and III only
E. I, II, and III

8. Diuretics are substances that help eliminate water from the body. The effects of various substances were tested on several volunteers. All volunteers had a mass of 70 kg. They drank nothing for eight hours before the test and urinated just prior to ingesting the test substance. The three substances (water, caffeine, and salt) were tested on three separate days. The results are shown in the tables below.

Table 1

Table 2

Table 3

Which graph best represents the change in urine volume when ingesting caffeine?

A. img alt="" src="images/Prin_9780307945723_epub_211_r1.jpg"/>
B. img alt="" src="images/Prin_9780307945723_epub_212_r1.jpg"/>
C. img alt="" src="images/Prin_9780307945723_epub_213_r1.jpg"/>
D. img alt="" src="images/Prin_9780307945723_epub_214_r1.jpg"/>
E. img alt="" src="images/Prin_9780307945723_epub_215_r1.jpg"/>

9. Diuretics are substances that help eliminate water from the body. The effects of various substances were tested on several volunteers. All volunteers had a mass of 70 kg. They drank nothing for eight hours before the test and urinated just prior to ingesting the test substance. The three substances (water, caffeine, and salt) were tested on three separate days. The results are shown in the tables below.

Table 1

Table 2

Table 3

The purpose of ingesting the plain water (Table 3) was to

A. rehydrate the volunteers
B. dissolve the substances
C. act as a control
D. flush out the kidneys
E. act as a positive test substance

10. Diuretics are substances that help eliminate water from the body. The effects of various substances were tested on several volunteers. All volunteers had a mass of 70 kg. They drank nothing for eight hours before the test and urinated just prior to ingesting the test substance. The three substances (water, caffeine, and salt) were tested on three separate days. The results are shown in the tables below.

Table 1

Table 2

Table 3

Based on the results in Table 2, if a volunteer were to ingest 4.5 g sodium chloride dissolved in 100 ml water, what would be the approximate predicted urine volume collected after one hour?

A. 20 ml
B. 30 ml
C. 40 ml
D. 50 ml
E. 60 ml

11. Hemophilia is a disorder in which blood fails to clot. John, a male hemophiliac, marries Jane, a normal woman, and together they have four children, two boys (Mark and Mike) and two girls (Molly and Mary). None of the children display the symptoms of hemophilia. Mark, Mike, Molly, and Mary all marry normal individuals and have children. None of Mark's or Mike's children, male or female, display symptoms of hemophilia, but the sons of Molly and Mary all display symptoms of hemophilia while the daughters of Molly and Mary do not.

Which of the following best explains the reason that Mark, Mike, Molly, and Mary do not display symptoms of hemophilia, even though their father, John, is a hemophiliac?

A. Hemophilia is an X-linked disorder, and John can pass on only his Y chromosome.
B. Hemophilia is an X-linked disorder and even though Molly and Mary received a hemophiliac X chromosome from John, Jane gave them a normal X chromosome.
C. Hemophilia is a Y-linked disorder and therefore cannot be displayed in females.
D. Hemophilia is a Y-linked disorder and Mark and Mike must have received an X chromosome from John.
E. Hemophilia is an X-linked disorder, and even though Mark and Mike received a hemophiliac X chromosome from John, Jane gave them a normal X chromosome.

12. Hemophilia is a disorder in which blood fails to clot. John, a male hemophiliac, marries Jane, a normal woman, and together they have four children, two boys (Mark and Mike) and two girls (Molly and Mary). None of the children display the symptoms of hemophilia. Mark, Mike, Molly, and Mary all marry normal individuals and have children. None of Mark's or Mike's children, male or female, display symptoms of hemophilia, but the sons of Molly and Mary all display symptoms of hemophilia while the daughters of Molly and Mary do not.

If one of Mike's daughters marries a normal man, what is the probability that one of their children will display symptoms of hemophilia?

A. 0%
B. 25%
C. 50%
D. 75%
E. 100%

13. Hemophilia is a disorder in which blood fails to clot. John, a male hemophiliac, marries Jane, a normal woman, and together they have four children, two boys (Mark and Mike) and two girls (Molly and Mary). None of the children display the symptoms of hemophilia. Mark, Mike, Molly, and Mary all marry normal individuals and have children. None of Mark's or Mike's children, male or female, display symptoms of hemophilia, but the sons of Molly and Mary all display symptoms of hemophilia while the daughters of Molly and Mary do not.

Which of the following individuals are heterozygous for hemophilia?

A. John, Mark, and Mike
B. Mark, Mike, Molly, and Mary
C. John and Jane
D. Molly and Mary
E. Mark and Mike

14. A volunteer was injected intravenously with several test substances to determine the effect of each substance on normal body variables. The results are shown in Table 1. Assume that enough time was allowed between injections so that the substances do not interfere with one another.

Table 1

Based on the information in Table 1, which of the following is most likely substance B?

A. Calcitonin
B. Insulin
C. Parathyroid hormone
D. Glucagon
E. Aldosterone

15. A volunteer was injected intravenously with several test substances to determine the effect of each substance on normal body variables. The results are shown in Table 1. Assume that enough time was allowed between injections so that the substances do not interfere with one another.

Table 1

Based on the information in Table 1, which of the following is most likely substance A?

A. Glucagon
B. Aldosterone
C. Calcitonin
D. Parathyroid hormone
E. Insulin

16. A volunteer was injected intravenously with several test substances to determine the effect of each substance on normal body variables. The results are shown in Table 1. Assume that enough time was allowed between injections so that the substances do not interfere with one another.

Table 1

Under what conditions might substance D be released normally?

A. Soon after a meal
B. When blood pressure is low
C. Between meals
D. When there has been limited intake of dietary calcium
E. When dietary calcium is in excess

17. A volunteer was injected intravenously with several test substances to determine the effect of each substance on normal body variables. The results are shown in Table 1. Assume that enough time was allowed between injections so that the substances do not interfere with one another.

Table 1

All of the following changes in variable values are significant EXCEPT

A. the change in serum glucose when substance A is injected
B. the change in serum Na+ when substance D is injected
C. the change in serum Ca++ when substance B is injected
D. the change in serum glucose when substance C is injected
E. the change in serum Na+ when substance B is injected

18. Three different cell types were observed under the microscope. The observations are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1

The three cell types were grown in separate cultures with plenty of oxygen and nutrients available. Figure 1 shows their rates of growth. At Time 1, oxygen was no longer available to the cells.

Figure 1

Based on the information in Table 1, which of the following is the most likely classification of cell Type A ?

A. Fungi
B. Plant
C. Bacteria
D. Animal
E. Protist

19. Three different cell types were observed under the microscope. The observations are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1

The three cell types were grown in separate cultures with plenty of oxygen and nutrients available. Figure 1 shows their rates of growth. At Time 1, oxygen was no longer available to the cells.

Figure 1

Which of the following equations is cell Type C able to run?

I. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP

II. H2O + light → O2 + ATP + NADPH

III. 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP + NADPH → C6H12OA. I only
B. II only
C. I and III only
D. II and III only
E. I, II, and III

20. Three different cell types were observed under the microscope. The observations are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1

The three cell types were grown in separate cultures with plenty of oxygen and nutrients available. Figure 1 shows their rates of growth. At Time 1, oxygen was no longer available to the cells.

Figure 1

Consider Figure 1. Which of the following statements best describes the reason for the difference between the curves for cell Type B and cell Type C ?

A. Cell Type B is unable to survive in the presence of oxygen, while cell Type C can ferment.
B. The products of fermentation in cell Type C are toxic to the cells and they are dying.
C. Cell Type B is an obligate aerobe while cell Type C is able to ferment.
D. Cell Type B is a facultative anaerobe, while cell Type C is an obligate aerobe.
E. Cell Type C is an obligate aerobe, while cell Type B is an obligate anaerobe.