SAT Subject Biology E/M Practice Test 4: Part C

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Question 20 questions

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1. Because some fruits contain enzymes that act as proteases, various fruit extracts were tested for use as possible meat tenderizers. The extracts were tested over a range of pH values. Below is a graph of relative effectiveness (compared to distilled water) vs. pH.

Over which pH range does pineapple extract operate at no less than 50% of its maximum effectiveness?

A. pH 4 to pH 10
B. pH 2 to pH 12
C. pH 6 to pH 8
D. pH 7 to pH 11
E. pH 10 to pH 14

2. Because some fruits contain enzymes that act as proteases, various fruit extracts were tested for use as possible meat tenderizers. The extracts were tested over a range of pH values. Below is a graph of relative effectiveness (compared to distilled water) vs. pH.

Which fruit extract is most effective at a neutral pH?

A. Lemon
B. Banana
C. Papaya
D. Pineapple
E. Apple

3. Because some fruits contain enzymes that act as proteases, various fruit extracts were tested for use as possible meat tenderizers. The extracts were tested over a range of pH values. Below is a graph of relative effectiveness (compared to distilled water) vs. pH.

What does it mean when a fruit extract has a relative effectiveness of 1 ?

A. It is 100% more effective than water.
B. It is 10% as effective as water.
C. It is 1% as effective as water.
D. It is equally as effective as water.
E. It is equally concentrated as water.

4. A self-pollinating plant with orange flowers and alternating leaf arrangement produces 47 plants with red flowers and alternating leaves, 103 plants with orange flowers and alternating leaves, and 51 plants with yellow flowers and alternating leaves.

The allele for yellow flower color is

A. recessive
B. dominant
C. incompletely dominant
D. incompletely recessive
E. codominant

5. A self-pollinating plant with orange flowers and alternating leaf arrangement produces 47 plants with red flowers and alternating leaves, 103 plants with orange flowers and alternating leaves, and 51 plants with yellow flowers and alternating leaves.

If a yellow-flowered offspring were self-pollinated, what would the resulting plants' flowers look like?

A. 100% yellow
B. 100% red
C. 100% orange
D. 50% yellow, 50% red
E. 75% red, 25% yellow

6. A self-pollinating plant with orange flowers and alternating leaf arrangement produces 47 plants with red flowers and alternating leaves, 103 plants with orange flowers and alternating leaves, and 51 plants with yellow flowers and alternating leaves.

The genotype of the original parent plant is

A. heterozygous for both flower color and leaf arrangement
B. homozygous for both flower color and leaf arrangement
C. homozygous for flower color and heterozygous for leaf arrangement
D. heterozygous for flower color and homozygous for leaf arrangement
E. heterozygous for flower color but unable to determine genotype for leaf arrangement

7. A self-pollinating plant with orange flowers and alternating leaf arrangement produces 47 plants with red flowers and alternating leaves, 103 plants with orange flowers and alternating leaves, and 51 plants with yellow flowers and alternating leaves.

Suppose the original parent plant is cross- pollinated with a plant that has red flowers and non-alternating leaves. All of the resulting offspring have non-alternating leaves. Which of the following is/are true?

I. None of the offspring have orange flowers.

II. The allele for alternating leaves is recessive.

III. Approximately half of the offspring have red flowers.

A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. I and III only
E. II and III only

8. 2-butoxyethanol, a substance found in a general household cleaner, was tested for toxicity to termites. Solutions were made that contained various parts per million (PPM) of 2-butoxyethanol, and 15 mL of each of these diluted solutions was mixed with 150 g of wood chips. Twenty mature termites were added to the wood chips, and the number surviving after 24 hours was determined and recorded. The following graph presents the results.

At which dose does 50% of the termite population survive?

A. 15 PPM
B. 20 PPM
C. 25 PPM
D. 30 PPM
E. 35 PPM

9. 2-butoxyethanol, a substance found in a general household cleaner, was tested for toxicity to termites. Solutions were made that contained various parts per million (PPM) of 2-butoxyethanol, and 15 mL of each of these diluted solutions was mixed with 150 g of wood chips. Twenty mature termites were added to the wood chips, and the number surviving after 24 hours was determined and recorded. The following graph presents the results.

How is this substance toxic to termites?

A. It paralyzes their jaws so they are unable to eat.
B. It prevents digestion of wood.
C. It kills the microorganisms in the termites' digestive tracks that digest wood.
D. At 40 PPM only 20% of the termites survive.
E. There is no information given that describes the mechanism of toxicity.

10. 2-butoxyethanol, a substance found in a general household cleaner, was tested for toxicity to termites. Solutions were made that contained various parts per million (PPM) of 2-butoxyethanol, and 15 mL of each of these diluted solutions was mixed with 150 g of wood chips. Twenty mature termites were added to the wood chips, and the number surviving after 24 hours was determined and recorded. The following graph presents the results.

Based on the data for 20 PPM 2-butoxyethanol, what concentration of solution would be required to kill the entire 20-member termite population?

A. 40 PPM
B. 50 PPM
C. 60 PPM
D. 70 PPM
E. 80 PPM

11. The following experiment was performed to test the effect of an auxin on plant growth. The auxin was dissolved in a gelatin block; gelatin does not affect the biological activity of the auxin. Several plant seedlings were prepared as described below and growth was measured every five days.

Based on the results of the experiment, one can conclude that the tip of the plant contains

A. gelatin
B. water
C. auxin
D. paste
E. nothing significant

12. The following experiment was performed to test the effect of an auxin on plant growth. The auxin was dissolved in a gelatin block; gelatin does not affect the biological activity of the auxin. Several plant seedlings were prepared as described below and growth was measured every five days.

Which of the following plants in the experiment acted as a control?

I. Plant 1

II. Plants 2 and 3

III. Plant 5

A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. I and II only
E. I, II, and III

13. The following experiment was performed to test the effect of an auxin on plant growth. The auxin was dissolved in a gelatin block; gelatin does not affect the biological activity of the auxin. Several plant seedlings were prepared as described below and growth was measured every five days.

What proves that auxin is necessary for plant growth?

A. Plant 1 grew faster than Plants 2 or 3.
B. Plant 4 grew faster than Plants 2 or 3.
C. Plant 5 grew faster than Plant 1.
D. Plant 3 grew faster than Plant 2.
E. Plant 4 grew faster than Plant 5.

14. The following experiment was performed to test the effect of an auxin on plant growth. The auxin was dissolved in a gelatin block; gelatin does not affect the biological activity of the auxin. Several plant seedlings were prepared as described below and growth was measured every five days.

In a separate experiment, an auxin/gelatin block applied to only half the cut edge of the tip caused the plant to grow and bend in the opposite direction. For example, if the auxin/gelatin block was applied to the left side of the cut edge, the plant grew and bent toward the right. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this observation?

A. Sunlight caused the plant to bend.
B. The plant exhibited gravitropism.
C. Auxin stimulated cell division on the opposite side of the plant.
D. Auxin stimulated cell division on the same side of the plant.
E. Auxin stimulated cell growth toward a light source.

15. Unfertilized frog oocytes were bathed in a neutral, isotonic solution (Frog Ringer's solution) to prevent changes in volume due to osmosis. The Frog Ringer's solution was supplemented with radiolabeled amino acids. A sample of oocytes was taken every 30 minutes and assayed for radioactivity.

At Time 1, the oocytes were fertilized. Samples were taken at five-minute intervals after fertilization and assayed for radioactivity. The results are presented in the graph below.

The radioactivity measured after fertilization was taken up by

A. being incorporated into DNA
B. being incorporated into proteins
C. attaching to the cell membrane
D. endocytosis
E. associating with carbohydrates

16. Unfertilized frog oocytes were bathed in a neutral, isotonic solution (Frog Ringer's solution) to prevent changes in volume due to osmosis. The Frog Ringer's solution was supplemented with radiolabeled amino acids. A sample of oocytes was taken every 30 minutes and assayed for radioactivity.

At Time 1, the oocytes were fertilized. Samples were taken at five-minute intervals after fertilization and assayed for radioactivity. The results are presented in the graph below.

How could a control be created for this experiment?

A. Immerse the oocytes in non-radiolabeled Frog Ringer's solution prior to fertilization
B. Sample the oocytes at five-minute intervals prior to fertilization
C. Sample the oocytes at 30-minute intervals after fertilization
D. Divide the oocytes into two groups, immerse one group in non-radiolabeled Frog Ringer's solution and one group in radiolabeled solution
E. Divide the oocytes into two groups, fertilize one group, and simulate fertilization in the other, but do not actually introduce sperm into the oocytes

17. Unfertilized frog oocytes were bathed in a neutral, isotonic solution (Frog Ringer's solution) to prevent changes in volume due to osmosis. The Frog Ringer's solution was supplemented with radiolabeled amino acids. A sample of oocytes was taken every 30 minutes and assayed for radioactivity.

At Time 1, the oocytes were fertilized. Samples were taken at five-minute intervals after fertilization and assayed for radioactivity. The results are presented in the graph below.

Based on the results of the experiment, the process most likely occurring after fertilization is

A. DNA replication
B. organogenesis
C. protein synthesis
D. RNA transcription
E. endocytosis

18. Unfertilized frog oocytes were bathed in a neutral, isotonic solution (Frog Ringer's solution) to prevent changes in volume due to osmosis. The Frog Ringer's solution was supplemented with radiolabeled amino acids. A sample of oocytes was taken every 30 minutes and assayed for radioactivity.

At Time 1, the oocytes were fertilized. Samples were taken at five-minute intervals after fertilization and assayed for radioactivity. The results are presented in the graph below.

The Frog Ringer's solution in the experiment is described as being isotonic. An isotonic solution

A. has more DNA than another solution
B. has more protein than another solution
C. is more concentrated than another solution
D. is less concentrated than another solution
E. is equally concentrated to another solution

19. A group of 10 newly hatched chicks was separated into two smaller groups containing five chicks each. One group (Group A) was left with the mother hen, the other group (Group B) was taken shortly after hatching and kept with a mother goose. The chicks in Group A displayed normal behavior and followed the mother hen around. The chicks in Group B followed the mother goose around and exhibited goose like behavior, such as swimming. After one week, Group B was reunited with the mother hen, but ignored her, and instead continued to follow the mother goose around the barnyard.

The behavior exhibited by the chicks in Group B is

A. imprinting
B. instinct
C. insight
D. habituation
E. conditioning

20. A group of 10 newly hatched chicks was separated into two smaller groups containing five chicks each. One group (Group A) was left with the mother hen, the other group (Group B) was taken shortly after hatching and kept with a mother goose. The chicks in Group A displayed normal behavior and followed the mother hen around. The chicks in Group B followed the mother goose around and exhibited goose like behavior, such as swimming. After one week, Group B was reunited with the mother hen, but ignored her, and instead continued to follow the mother goose around the barnyard.

If exposed to a mother pig during the period shortly after hatching, the chicks in Group B would exhibit

A. pig like behavior
B. goose like behavior
C. chick like behavior
D. unique behavior
E. unknown behavior