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1. The main components of Henry Clay's American System were
A. a canal, railroads, and lower taxes B. low tariffs, public education, military spending, and agriculture C. a national bank, a protective tariff, and a national transportation system D. trade with Europe, income taxes, and deficit spending E. states' rights, local transportation, and a tax on Southern farmers
2. All the following were possible motives for President Harry S. Truman using the atomic bomb against Japan EXCEPT:
A. Japan refused to surrender. B. Truman wanted to dismantle Japan's nuclear facilities. C. the bombing could prevent a costly U.S. land invasion of Japan. D. Truman wished to demonstrate the power of the bomb to the Soviet Union. E. The United States wanted revenge for Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
3. As the automobile industry developed, it promoted the growth of all the following EXCEPT:
A. the asphalt and road-paving industries B. the advertising business C. the oil-refining industry D. the telephone and telegraph industries E. the importation of rubber
4. The nickname "Star Wars" refers to which of the following?
A. Public arguments among cabinet members during the Ford administration B. The race to be the first nation to land an astronaut on the moon C. A missile-based defense system conceived by President Ronald Reagan D. The race for the top ratings for the evening network news broadcasts in the 1990s E. Special Prosecutor Kenneth Starr's tactics during his investigation of allegations against President Bill Clinton
5. Jazz is a blend of all the following musical influences EXCEPT:
A. spirituals B. the blues C. hymns D. work songs E. ragtime
6. It was a pleasure to live in those good old days, when a Federalist could knock a Republican down in the streets and not be questioned about it. The speaker of the above quotation most likely was referring to which decade in history?
A. 1800s B. 1850s C. 1870s D. 1920s E. 1960s
7. Which political party was formed during the 1890s to address the concerns of U.S. farmers?
A. Democratic Party B. Republican Party C. Progressive Party D. Populist Party E. Socialist Party
8. African Americans and women first served in combat duty in which of the following wars?
A. Revolutionary War B. World War I C. Vietnam War D. Persian Gulf War E. War in Iraq
9. Which of the following groups did NOT help form the Free-Soil Party in 1848?
A. Abolitionists B. Farmers C. Industrial workers D. Land reformers E. Southern conservatives
10. Which of the following works would be most useful to a historian researching the living conditions of immigrants in New York City in the 1890s?
A. The House of Mirth by Edith Wharton B. How the Other Half Livesby Jacob Riis C. Theory of the Leisure Classby Thorstein Veblen D. The Bloodhounds of Broadway by Damon Runyon E. The Gangs of New York by Herbert Asbury
11. Civil rights groups opposed the Vietnam War primarily because
A. they supported the North Vietnamese and the communists B. the media had stopped covering the civil rights movement in order to cover the war news C. money that had been earmarked for social programs was diverted to military use D. they objected to the war on religious and pacifist grounds E. they wanted to prevent the reelection of President Lyndon Johnson
12. Accusations of improper conduct in the personal life of a candidate for high office are an example of which of the following?
A. Muckraking B. Mudslinging C. Gerrymandering D. Grandstanding E. Posturing
13. Whenever I hear anyone arguing for slavery, I feel a strong impulse to see it tried on him personally. The speaker of the above quotation is probably which of the following?
A. Jefferson Davis B. Abraham Lincoln C. Theodore Roosevelt D. Stephen Douglas E. Robert E. Lee
14. The precedent for a free press in the United States was set by a trial involving which of the following?
A. Thomas Paine B. John Peter Zenger C. Samuel Adams D. Phillis Wheatley E. Frederick Douglass
15. In 1837, Democratic Party members of Congress passed a "gag rule" forbidding any discussion or debate of
A. corruption B. sedition C. abolition D. expansion E. imperialism
16. Which of the following established a court system in the United States?
A. The Articles of Confederation B. The Bill of Rights C. The Fifth Amendment D. The Sixth Amendment E. The Judiciary Act of 1789
17. A man who is good enough to shed his blood for his country is good enough to be given a square deal afterwards. More than that no man is entitled to, and less than that no man shall have. Which of the following is most likely true of the speaker of the above quotation?
A. He believed in equal opportunities for people of all social classes. B. He approved of U.S. involvement in foreign wars. C. He felt that veterans were entitled to special benefits. D. He was likely to side with owners rather than workers in labor disputes. E. He supported an all-volunteer military rather than a military draft.
18. All of the following were proposals of Alexander Hamilton EXCEPT:
A. a national bank B. repeal of the whiskey tax C. protective tariffs D. the federal government should assume state debts incurred during the Revolution E. direct support to industry by government subsidies
19. Which of the following did President Abraham Lincoln quote from in his Gettysburg Address?
A. The Constitution B. The Declaration of Independence C. Common Sense D. The Federalist Papers E. The Emancipation Proclamation
20. The American Federation of Labor was founded in 1886 as a result of
A. the Haymarket Riot B. the election of President Grover Cleveland C. a severe financial panic D. federal legislation E. negotiations between owners and workers
21. Which of the following spurred young people in the United States to push for the ratification of the Twenty-Sixth Amendment?
A. Opposition to the Vietnam War B. Support for a Republican administration C. Concern for veterans' rights D. Commitment to civil rights for all Americans E. Determination to ensure equal rights for men and women
22. Which of the following was designed to enforce the provisions of the Eighteenth [Prohibition] Amendment?
A. Kansas-Nebraska Act B. War Powers Act C. Voting Rights Act D. Volstead Act E. Pure Food and Drug Act
23. A supporter of the Niagara Movement of 1905 prob ably would applaud all the following EXCEPT:
A. civil rights B. federal antilynching legislation C. integration of the public schools D. the African Colonization Society E. the founding of the NAACP
24. To show their opposition to the Stamp Act, colonists took all the following actions EXCEPT:
A. holding a meeting of colonial leaders in New York City B. calling up the members of the various colonial militias to active duty C. passing local legislation that declared the Stamp Act illegal D. refusing to purchase any products imported from Great Britain E. tarring and feathering the stamp agents
25. All the following are major African-American literary figures EXCEPT:
A. Frederick Douglass B. Richard Wright C. Ralph Ellison D. James Weldon Johnson E. Harriet Beecher Stowe
26. The Erie Canal connected the Great Lakes with which of the following?
A. The Pacific Ocean B. The Mississippi River C. The Hudson River D. The Cumberland Road E. The Chesapeake Bay
27. All the following contributed to President Franklin D. Roosevelt's election to an unprecedented third term EXCEPT:
A. his skill at conducting the war in Europe B. his outstanding skill as a political campaigner C. his success in creating jobs D. his opponent's failure to offer attractive alternatives to Roosevelt's policies E. his enormous personal popularity and ability to inspire people with his courage and optimism
28. W. E. B. DuBois disagreed with Booker T. Wash ington's argument against African-American politi cal activism primarily because
A. DuBois felt that African Americans' political activism would force the white majority to correct racial injustice B. DuBois felt that only African Americans had any right to speak about racial issues C. DuBois felt that Washington was a tool of the white majority D. DuBois had no faith in African Americans' ability to help themselves E. DuBois supported the African Colonization Society
29. President Harry S. Truman ordered the dropping of atomic bombs on Japanese cities primarily because
A. he wanted to save U.S. lives by forcing the Japanese to surrender B. he wanted to intimidate the German Army into surrendering C. he wanted the United States to be in the strongest possible position during peace negotiations with the other Allied Powers D. he wanted Japan to shut down its own nuclear facilities E. he wanted to destroy the capital city of Japan
30. The resignations of which two men made Gerald R. Ford president of the United States?
A. Bob Haldeman and John Erlichman B. Spiro Agnew and Richard Nixon C. Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan D. Robert Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson E. Henry Morgenthau and Harold Ickes
31. Which of the following most accurately defines Transcendentalism?
A. The belief that people can rise above material things in life to reach a higher understanding B. The belief that one religion could transcend denominationalism C. The belief that the Puritan faith could be combined with Unitarianism D. The belief that Native Americans could never attain heaven E. The belief in predestination and God's assignment at birth of people to their fate
32. The Sixteenth Amendment, passed in 1913, did which of the following?
A. Made the sale of alcoholic beverages illegal B. Gave women the right to vote C. Allowed for direct election of U.S. senators D. Enabled Congress to levy taxes on income E. Raised the voting age to 21
33. The Lincoln-Douglas debates took place during
A. the presidential election of 1860 B. the presidential election of 1864 C. the congressional debate over secession D. the House of Representatives elections of 1854 E. the Senate elections of 1858
34. The Wright Brothers developed an airplane using experience gained from
A. working with locomotives and large engines B. operating a bicycle shop and experimenting with small engines C. repairing tractors and farm equipment D. designing steam engines E. manufacturing sewing machines
35. Which of the following describes one major effect of President Warren G. Harding's economic policies?
A. The elimination of tariffs on imported goods B. A rise in union membership C. Increased profits for business owners D. Increased profits for farmers E. Strict enforcement of antitrust legislation
36. Which of the following took its name from a British political party that opposed the power of the monarch?
A. The Know-Nothings B. The Mugwumps C. The Republicans D. The Bull Moose Party E. The Whigs
37. The Native American literary tradition can be best described as which of the following?
A. Classical poetry B. Folk songs C. Sermons D. Creation myths and legends E. Oral history
38. Which of the following commanded the United States Expeditionary Forces during World War I?
A. John J. Pershing B. George S. Patton C. Douglas MacArthur D. Nathanael Greene E. Dwight D. Eisenhower
39. The remains of one of the most sophisticated prehis toric native civilizations north of Mexico are pre served at Cahokia, Illinois. The people who lived at this site were called:
A. the Toltec B. the Choctaw C. the Mound Builders D. the Creek Nation E. the Anasazi
40. . . . government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. This statement was first made in which of the following?
A. The Preamble to the Constitution B. The Declaration of Independence C. The Magna Carta D. The Fifteenth Amendment E. The Gettysburg Address
41. The total value of all goods and services produced in a nation during a given year is referred to as
A. the federal deficit B. the import-export ratio C. the federal budget D. the gross national product E. the distribution of wealth
42. The Iran hostage crisis had an impact on which presidential election?
A. 1972B. 1976C. 1980D. 1984E. 1988
43. Spirituals were of great importance to which of the following?
A. The Methodist Church B. Occult groups in New Orleans C. Slaves on plantations D. Catholic missions in the Southwest E. Immigrant funerals
44. Which of the following best describes Andrew Carnegie's practice of acquiring companies that pro vided raw materials and services for his steel business?
A. Vertical integration B. Lateral growth C. Cross-disciplinary exploitation D. Venture capitalism E. Horizontal integration
45. The ability to get to the verge without getting into war is the necessary art. The speaker is describing which of the following?
A. Brinksmanship B. Appeasement C. Imperialism D. Dollar diplomacy E. Containment
46. Which of the following was NOT an action author ized by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in 1914?
A. The investigation of corporations B. A ban on fraudulent or unfair business practices C. The use of the courts to enforce FTC rulings D. The levying of taxes on interstate commerce E. The targeting of abuses such as mislabeling and false claims
47. Which of the following constituted the most signifi cant international impact of the War of 1812?
A. It caused diplomatic tensions between the United States and Spain. B. It forced France to nullify the Louisiana Purchase. C. It lessened shipping commerce on the Great Lakes. D. It forced the United States to police the Atlantic Ocean. E. It removed the British from the Northwest Territories
48. George Washington's first cabinet consisted of
A. secretaries of war, state, commerce, and treasury B. attorney and postmaster generals and secretaries of state, treasury, and war C. secretaries of war, state, labor, and commerce D. secretaries of war, state, treasury, commerce, and Indian affairs E. chief justice, attorney general, and secretaries of state, war, and treasury
49. Congressional Republicans challenged President Clinton's domestic agenda in 1994 with their own proposals, popularly known as
A. the Reform Act B. the Economic Initiative C. the Contract with America D. the McCain-Feingold Bill E. Operation Restore Hope
50. The Zapruder film, which was shot with a hand-held camera in 1963, depicts which of the following?
A. The invention of the hula hoop B. The construction of the Pioneer 6 spacecraft C. The development of the measles vaccine D. The assassination of President John F. Kennedy E. The Watergate hearings
51. All or parts of the following present-day states were part of the Mexican Cession EXCEPT:
A. California B. Nevada C. Utah D. Colorado E. Oklahoma
52. The first 10 constitutional amendments are known as
A. the Bill of Rights B. Article VIII of the Constitution C. the Civil Rights amendments D. the elastic clause E. the Federalist amendments
53. There never has yet existed a wealthy and a civi lized society in which one portion of the community did not . . . live on the labor of another. The speaker of the above quotation was defending which of the following?
A. The establishment of the Confederacy B. South Carolina's right to secede from the United States C. the creation of the National Bank D. The institution of slavery E. The doctrine of nullification
54. The two-party political system emerged in part because of which of the following?
A. Progressivism B. Civil unrest C. Sectionalism D. Republicanism E. Nationalism
55. Which one of the following people became the first female pilot to complete a solo transatlantic flight?
A. Charles Lindbergh B. Harriet Quimby C. Bessie Coleman D. Gertrude Ederle E. Amelia Earhart
56. The government's policy of allowing cattle ranchers to let their herds graze on public land was called
A. the roundup B. range riding C. the long drive D. rustling E. open range
57. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848?
A. To unite the Native American tribes of New York State B. To discuss agricultural problems for farmers in the Eastern states C. To form a society to advance the rights of women D. To discuss antislavery strategies E. To select a leader for a group of evangelist congregations
58. The turning point of the Revolutionary War was a battle fought at
A. Bunker Hill, Massachusetts B. Saratoga, New York C. Brandywine, Pennsylvania D. Cowpens, South Carolina E. Ticonderoga, Vermont
59. Which of the following was a marketing innovation of General Motors in the 1920s to help consumers buy more expensive cars?
A. Subliminal advertising B. Rebates C. Discounts for trading in an old car D. Bargaining E. The installment plan
60. Which of the following was most likely NOT a goal of George W. Bush in creating the Department of Homeland Security?
A. Improving airport security B. Protecting transportation systems from attack C. Expanding law-enforcement powers to combat terrorism D. Building impenetrable walls along the Mexican and Canadian borders E. Protecting vital power networks from attack
61. Which faction formed in opposition to President Rutherford B. Hayes's support of civil-service reform?
A. Progressives B. National Grangers C. Populists D. Half-Breeds E. Stalwarts
62. Uncle Tom's Cabin provoked strong reactions in the South because
A. it justified Southerners' view that slavery was morally permissible B. it depicted slavery as wrong and slaveholders as corrupt C. it depicted romantic relations between African Americans and whites D. it predicted that the South would lose the Civil War E. it had no white characters
63. Which of the following helped the Pilgrims survive their first year in Plymouth by showing them how to grow crops?
A. Pocahontas B. Sacagawea C. Squanto D. Powhatan E. Sequoya
64. Which of the following geographical markings established the boundary between the United States and Spanish Florida in 1795?
A. The 38th parallel B. Fifty-four/forty C. Seventy-six degrees longitude, forty degrees latitude D. The 31st parallel E. The Tropic of Cancer
65. Which of the following most aptly describes Booker T. Washington's belief about the key to social and political equality for African Americans?
A. Economic independence through training and education B. Protesting against discrimination C. Overthrowing the U.S. government D. Militant opposition to U.S. policies E. Activist religious organizations
66. During Prohibition people drank alcohol at places called
A. back-room pubs B. bathtub gin mills C. stills D. speakeasies E. fraternity clubs
67. Which of the following congressional actions gave the president authority to take "all necessary meas ures to repel any attack against forces of the United States"?
A. The Bursum Bill B. The Dawes Act C. The Tonkin Gulf Resolution D. The Smoot-Hawley Tariff E. The War Powers Act
68. Sitting Bull was an important spiritual leader of the
A. Apache B. Comanche C. Navajo D. Sioux E. Creek
69. Shays' Rebellion in 1786 is significant because it
A. gave the U.S. militia a chance to demonstrate its efficiency B. raised doubts about the ability of a decentral ized government to deal with civil unrest C. opened the door to westward expansion D. united farmers against Native Americans E. allowed former Revolutionary War officers to take up arms again
70. All the following were major crops in the antebellum South EXCEPT:
A. cotton B. tobacco C. maple syrup D. rice E. sugarcane
71. Nearly 600,000 U.S. lives were claimed in 1918-1919 by
A. an epidemic of influenza B. World War I C. an outbreak of polio D. violent labor strikes E. border violence with Mexico
72. President Richard Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger shared a belief in "realpolitik," which is best described as
A. a realistic belief in the ideal of democracy over any other interests B. a foreign policy that puts human rights first C. a foreign policy patterned after that of Germany D. diplomacy guided by the writings of Immanuel Kant E. a foreign policy guided by national interests rather than ideals
73. Which of the following was the first major farmers' organization, founded in 1867?
A. The 4-H Club B. The National Grange C. The Alliance D. The American Federation of Labor E. FarmAid
74. Which of the following was a severe low point for the Continental Army in the Revolutionary War?
A. The siege of Boston B. The Battle of Brandywine C. The Battle of Trenton D. The winter at Valley Forge E. The surrender at Yorktown
75. Balboa's sighting of the Pacific Ocean and Magellan's voyage around the tip of South America motivated other European explorers to seek which of the following?
A. A land route to India B. Spanish permission to sail the Pacific C. A caravan route to the Indies D. A Northwest Passage to the Pacific and Asia E. The Middle Passage to the Americas
76. Which of the following five Republicans who ran for president in 1824 won the election?
A. William Crawford of Georgia B. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina C. John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts D. Henry Clay of Kentucky E. Andrew Jackson of Tennessee
77. During President Theodore Roosevelt's administra tion, the federal government first began making dam aged land productive again in a process called
A. reclamation B. rejuvenation C. progressivism D. conservation E. preservation
78. Which of the following generals did President Harry S. Truman fire for interfering with peace negotia tions with Korea?
A. Dwight D. Eisenhower B. Omar Bradley C. Douglas MacArthur D. James Stewart E. Mark Clark
79. A second Industrial Revolution in the late 1800s was generated by innovations in which industries?
A. Automobile and railroad B. Steel and oil refining C. Telephone and telegraph D. Advertising and radio E. Agriculture and livestock
80. The Twenty-Third Amendment gave residents of the District of Columbia
A. exemption from the income tax B. the right to sue the federal government C. the right to vote in presidential elections D. exemption from property taxes E. the right to elect their own Congress
81. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut of 1639 can be described as which of the following?
A. A set of strict religious guidelines B. Precepts of the Puritans C. A royal charter that established a hierarchy of authority D. A peace treaty with the local Native Americans E. The first written constitution in the colonies
82. Which of the following names the typical shelters built by the first white settlers on the Great Plains?
A. Adobe houses B. Tepees C. Sod houses D. Log cabins E. Prairie schooners
83. Which of the following explains the original purpose of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)?
A. To force poor people to deposit their income tax returns B. To force employers to insure workers against injury C. To insure corporations exploring for mineral deposits D. To insure bank deposits up to $5,000 E. To protect banks against securities fraud
84. The attack launched by North Vietnamese troops on January 30, 1968, is called the Tet Offensive because
A. January 30 is Tet, the Vietnamese New Year B. Tet is the province where fighting was launched C. General Tet and his staff advisors planned the attack D. the fighting began with the troops crossed the Tet River E. Tet was a Vietnamese code name for the operation
85. Which of the following describes the most popular form of stage entertainment during the late 1800s?
A. Opera B. Ballet C. Vaudeville D. Musical comedy E. Tableaux
86. Which of the following describes General William T. Sherman's strategy of total war against the Confederacy?
A. Using both navy and army troops B. Employing all the troops all the time C. Destroying everything that would allow the Confederacy to keep fighting D. Killing all enemies rather than taking them prisoner E. Enlisting civilians to fight
87. The power of the courts to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional was established in the landmark Supreme Court case
A. Roe v. Wade B. Marbury v. Madison C. McCulloch v. Maryland D. Plessy v. Ferguson E. Dred Scott v. Sandford
88. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 includes all the following EXCEPT:
A. prohibition of discrimination in employment against qualified individuals with disabilities B. requirement of access for the physically dis abled to all public buildings C. prohibition of discrimination against the men tally handicapped in transportation D. guarantee of fair and easy access to telephone services E. guarantee of scholarship opportunities for peo ple with learning disabilities
89. Madame C. J. Walker became a millionaire in the early 1900s by marketing
A. canned peas and greens B. Walker's sweet potato pies C. a bottled tonic for digestion D. a hair-conditioning treatment for African American women E. the Walker bicycle for girls
90. The Pilgrims were called Separatists because they had broken with
A. the king of England B. the Catholics C. the Anglican Church D. the New England Way E. the Jamestown Colony
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