SAT US History Subject Test: Full-length Practice Test 7

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Question 90 questions

Time 60 minutes

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1. The discovery of the New World resulted from the desire of many Europeans to

A. establish a place where they could practice their religion freely.
B. find an all-water route to the East.
C. end the practice of primogeniture.
D. spread Christianity around the world.
E. uplift and civilize other peoples of the world.

2. Which event was the most important cause of the Nullification Crisis?

A. The passage of the Force Act under Andrew Jackson
B. The debates between Robert Y. Hayne and Daniel Webster
C. The Treaty of Ghent after the War of 1812
D. The passage of the Compromise Tariff of 1833
E. The passage of the 1828 Tariff of Abominations

3. Why did Stephen Douglas support the idea of Popular Sovereignty when designing the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854?

A. It guaranteed that "free soilers" could exclude slavery from Kansas and Nebraska.
B. It was outlined in the Constitution as a method for creating new states.
C. It guaranteed that pro-slavery settlers could expand slavery in Kansas.
D. It seemed a fair way to resolve a difficult controversy.
E. It let the Congress decide on slavery in the territories.

4. Which of the following developments is NOT associated with the Gilded Age?

A. Relations between workers and owners became increasingly contentious.
B. African Americans' migration to industrial cities led to "white flight."
C. New inventions made communication between cities easier.
D. Many industries came to be dominated by a small number of large companies.
E. Corruption in politics became more public and widespread.

5. The publication of The Jungle contributed to rapid passage of the

A. Interstate Commerce Act.
B. Wade-Davis Bill.
C. Pure Food and Drug Act.
D. 15th Amendment.
E. Clayton Antitrust Act.

6. A philosophical basis of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal was the

A. philosophy of Herbert Hoover.
B. practice of laissez-faire by the government.
C. combination of relief, recovery, and reform.
D. idea that wars end depression.
E. importance of gaining the approval of Congress before he established his programs.

7. In response to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the United States

A. issued a document refusing to recognize Japanese actions as legitimate.
B. called a special session of the League of Nations.
C. sent General MacArthur to command U.S. forces in the Pacific.
D. engaged in a policy of watchful waiting.
E. sent the Panay, a naval vessel, to the coast of Japan.

8. During the years of Lyndon Johnson's presidency, all of the following were enacted EXCEPT

A. Medicare.
B. Medicaid.
C. the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.
D. the Constitutional Amendment eliminating the poll tax.
E. the Alliance for Progress.

9. For which of the following ideas in the 1970s was Gloria Steinem most noted?

A. Sex has political aspects, which can be seen in literary works by writers such as D. H. Lawrence and Norman Mailer.
B. Women should convince men to help with the housework.
C. Blacks and whites should have equality in the workplace.
D. Women should have equal rights with men.
E. The use of pesticides was harming the environment.

10. An example of the change in U.S. policy toward Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War was best demonstrated by

A. increased aid given to North Vietnam by George H. W. Bush.
B. trade restrictions placed on Vietnam by George W. Bush.
C. recognition of the Vietnamese government by Richard Nixon.
D. criticism of Vietnam for its human rights violations by Jimmy Carter.
E. visits and trade talks conducted by Bill Clinton with Vietnamese leaders.

11. The New England colonists seemed to thrive in the early years of colonization as compared to the Southern colonists. The longer life spans and the overall growth of the population in New England have been attributed to the

A. participation of New Englanders in transatlantic trade.
B. lack of slavery and indentured servitude in New England.
C. strong religious beliefs and the family units with which they traveled to the New World.
D. larger number of single men in the New England colonies.
E. temperate climate of New England.

12. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was significant because it

A. ended British control of the Ohio Valley.
B. prohibited the extension of slavery into the Northwest Territory.
C. prevented slavery north of the 36° 30' north latitude line.
D. secured peaceful relations between the colonists and the Native Americans.
E. settled a dispute over the location of the boundary between Canada and the United States.

13. In the 1829 Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, David Walker called for

A. the gradual abolition of slavery.
B. a return to Africa for all African Americans.
C. the immediate abolition of slavery and, if necessary, for slaves to kill their masters.
D. slaves to wait until the time was right to ask the U.S. government for emancipation.
E. a separate state for freed people to live in.

14. Which of the following is an important reason the South lost the Civil War?

A. The South did not have enough guns to prevent the Union from overpowering it.
B. Slaves ran away, so there were fewer and fewer hands to do the work on the home front.
C. The Union generals were better military men, so they continually out-maneuvered the Southern forces.
D. The South was unable to ship any cotton because the Union blockade was so effective.
E. The issues of slavery and states rights were not important to the majority of Southerners.

15. image

Which of the following best expresses the point of view of the above cartoon?

A. The working class and the poor had good reason to oppose immigration to the United States because new immigrants would compete with them for jobs.
B. The government should enact restrictions on the number of immigrants allowed in the United States because immigrants were lazy and immoral.
C. Nativists who opposed allowing immigrants into the country were hypocrites because they themselves had humble, foreign origins.
D. Immigration contributed to the cultural diversity of the United States.
E. The United States should avoid getting involved in foreign conflicts because it would then feel obliged to accept refugees from these conflicts.

16. One reason Woodrow Wilson was able to win the presidency in 1912 was that

A. Americans rallied around him during World War I.
B. a majority of African Americans voted for the Democratic Party.
C. Wilson's humble origins endeared him to working-class Americans.
D. there was a major split in the Republican Party.
E. his opponent died two weeks before the election.

17. Which of the following best describes the differences that existed between the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in the 1930s?

A. The AFL had a huge membership, while the CIO never developed a mass following.
B. The AFL had its strength east of the Mississippi River, while the CIO was strongest west of the Mississippi.
C. The AFL was more cautious in its approach to conflicts with management, while the CIO was willing to use more militant tactics, such as the sit-down strike.
D. The AFL was actually a coalition of "company unions," organized by management to placate worker resentment, while the CIO was composed of actual worker organizations.
E. The AFL was dominated by Communist Party members, while the CIO, fearing government reprisals, excluded Communists from leadership positions.

18. In the "Letter from Birmingham Jail," Martin Luther King Jr. discussed the "strangely irrational notion that there is something in the flow of time that inevitably cures all ills. We must come to see that human progress never rolls on the wheels of inevitability."

Which of the following represents the main idea of the above excerpt?

A. Nonviolence is the key to success for the civil rights movement.
B. The white moderates are obstacles to our victory.
C. We must act now.
D. Injustice must be eradicated everywhere.
E. Breaking unjust laws is justified.

19. The women's movement that emerged in the 1970s was called the second wave of feminism because it

A. took its name from the title of a book by Simone de Beauvoir.
B. built on the women's movement of the 19th century.
C. built on the women's movement of the 1930s.
D. took inspiration from the women's movement in Europe.
E. took its name from the title of a book by Kate Millett.

20. Ronald Reagan was called the "Teflon president" because he

A. was the Great Communicator.
B. told the truth without embellishment.
C. always had everything under control.
D. was never held responsible for the failures of his administration.
E. did not need special handling.

21. Rhode Island and the Massachusetts Bay Colony differed in that Rhode Island

A. was a theocracy.
B. was a royal colony.
C. lacked religious freedom.
D. practiced a policy of separation of church and state.
E. was located in New England.

22. The First and Second Great Awakenings were similar in that both

A. made use of revivals to attempt to convert the sinful.
B. enforced the Puritan use of incense.
C. encouraged long periods of silence during services so that the congregation felt the spirit of God.
D. were purely American phenomena.
E. employed deistic approaches to religious belief.

23. The implied powers clause of the U.S. Constitution was used to justify the

A. suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794.
B. addition of the Bill of Rights to the Constitution in 1791.
C. signing of Jay's Treaty with England in 1794.
D. passage of the Judiciary Act of 1789.
E. establishment of the Bank of the United States in 1791.

24. The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments are similar in that all three

A. extended voting to different groups in the United States.
B. were ratified during the Civil War.
C. expanded the rights of African Americans.
D. were ratified despite opposition from the Republican Party.
E. protected the rights of property holders.

25. image

Which of the following statements is consistent with the data in the graphs above and with trends in American history from 1865 to 1900?

A. Mechanization greatly benefited farmers, as output of corn nearly tripled between 1865 and 1900.
B. General Sherman's march to the sea during the Civil War destroyed farming equipment, which led to a decline in corn prices after 1865.
C. The Radical Republicans' policy of giving freedmen 40 acres and a mule during Reconstruction led to excessive corn production.
D. The inflationary policies of the government between 1865 and 1900 did not benefit farmers.
E. Mechanization led to a glut of corn on the market and to reduced prices per bushel.

26. Wilson's idea of a "peace without victory" failed to become a reality in the Treaty of Versailles because

A. the Triple Alliance was totally responsible for the events leading to World War I.
B. England and France wanted Germany to pay for starting the war.
C. Wilson failed to pursue his ideas actively during the negotiations for the treaty.
D. the League of Nations was not established.
E. Germany refused to take part in the negotiations.

27. The use of the atomic bomb by the United States in 1945 was significant in that it

A. hastened the end of World War II.
B. caused the defeat of Harry Truman in the election of 1948.
C. led to the formation of the United Nations.
D. ushered in the computer age.
E. was the direct cause of the Cold War.

28. Which of the following is a central argument of the 1958 book, The Affluent Society, by John Kenneth Galbraith?

A. The key to economic growth is government noninterference in the economy.
B. A small group of wealthy and influential Americans had managed to gain control of both the economy and the government.
C. A Soviet-style command economy would best meet the needs of the majority of Americans.
D. The United States should reinvigorate its agricultural sector with heavy subsidies to farmers and high tariffs on imported agricultural products.
E. American society was ignoring social goods in the pursuit of private material gain.

29. All of the following Cold War ideas involved Europe EXCEPT

A. the Truman Doctrine.
B. the domino theory.
C. Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD).
D. containment.
E. détente.

30. The election of Barack Obama as president was significant for all of these reasons EXCEPT that

A. he was the first African American ever elected.
B. he was the youngest president ever elected.
C. he was the first senator to win an election since John F. Kennedy.
D. he was the first candidate to utilize the full power of the Internet.
E. it was the first time a sitting senator had defeated another sitting senator.

31. As a result of the French and Indian War, the American colonists developed a

A. hostile attitude toward the Indians.
B. greater sense of self-confidence.
C. greater respect for the British.
D. desire to create a strong army.
E. desire to ally with Spain.

32. The beginnings of a uniquely American culture in the 1700s were seen in

A. the success of the American generals who fought in the French and Indian War.
B. John Locke's views regarding human rights.
C. the development of the belief in transcendentalism.
D. the works of artists and poets like John Trumbull and Phillis Wheatley.
E. the writing of the "Star-Spangled Banner" by Francis Scott Key.

33. The constitutionality of the Bank of the United States was upheld in the Supreme Court decision in the case of

A. McCulloch v. Maryland.
B. Marbury v. Madison.
C. Plessy v. Ferguson.
D. Dred Scott v. Sanford.
E. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.

34. image

To which sections would the Wilmot Proviso have applied in the map above?

A. L and M
B. M and N
C. L and N
D. O and N
E. P and O

35. An unintended consequence of the implementation of the 1862 Homestead Act was that

A. very few people volunteered to participate in the program.
B. much of the land that was intended for homesteading ended up in the hands of large agricultural firms.
C. the land that was involved in the program was incapable of producing crops.
D. the homesteaders often had clashes with Native Americans.
E. corrupt politicians sold the best land to speculators.

36. Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst were similar in that both were

A. muckraking journalists who wrote articles that exposed government corruption.
B. moralizing commentators who chastised the public for their vices.
C. anti-imperialist editorial writers who pushed the United States in an isolationist direction.
D. publishers who owned newspapers, which sensationalized accounts of events.
E. writers of non-English newspapers that appealed to recently arrived immigrants.

37. There were protests against the "Palmer Raids" of the late 1910s and early 1920s on the grounds that they

A. blurred the separation of church and state.
B. discriminated against women.
C. violated protections against unwarranted search and seizure.
D. discriminated against African Americans.
E. failed to protect the rights of Native Americans.

38. Which of the following was the reason the Supreme Court decided that prayers could not be required in public schools?

A. Church membership had declined.
B. Atheism had spread throughout American society.
C. Prayer in public schools violated the 1st Amendment.
D. Prayer in public schools would lead to a renewal of religious tests for public office.
E. Americans no longer considered prayer to be important in their lives.

39. The main purpose of the Free Speech Movement of 1964 was to

A. make unions more democratic and give workers more power.
B. support the American Civil Liberties Union.
C. remove the censorship from rock-and-roll lyrics.
D. change radio programming.
E. allow college students to support civil rights and political causes.

40. The high gasoline prices that occurred during the administration of Jimmy Carter caused

A. deflation because the value of the dollar was falling.
B. inflation because prices were rising and the value of the dollar was falling.
C. depression because the bottom fell out of the stock market.
D. stagnation because employment was so high.
E. a rise in the value of the dollar because the prices were so high.

41. The fact that Spain, rather than its rival, Portugal, was the dominant power in the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries was largely the result of the

A. fact that Spanish ships were faster than Portuguese ships.
B. large numbers of Spanish settlers who arrived in the New World.
C. Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494.
D. success of Christopher Columbus in the New World.
E. large treasury that had been accumulated by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.

42. The creation of the Electoral College and the indirect election of senators demonstrates that the framers of the Constitution were concerned with the

A. effects of a strong central government.
B. problems created by weak state governments.
C. possibility of corruption in the election process.
D. excesses of democracy.
E. need to protect the rights of the majority.

43. The Northwest Ordinance and the Missouri Compromise of 1820 were similar in that both documents

A. set guidelines on the number of new states to be established.
B. admitted new states into the Union.
C. established public schools in new territories.
D. provided for the fair treatment of the Native American population.
E. restricted slavery in areas yet to be admitted as states.

44. "The owner fed us regular on good food just like you would a good horse if you had one."-An escaped slave (explaining why he ran away)

This quotation reflects the ex-slave's belief that

A. the slave owner was a good master.
B. he should be treated as more than a piece of property.
C. if slaves are treated well, they will be happy.
D. his owner took proper care of his slaves.
E. he was always satisfied as a slave.

45. Which of the following quotes comes from Abraham Lincoln's First Inaugural Address of March 1861?

A. A house divided against itself cannot stand.
B. Government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth.
C. Liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable.
D. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors.
E. With malice toward none and charity for all.

46. Most of the prominent labor battles of the late 19th century, such as the Railroad Strike of 1877 and the Pullman Strike of 1894, occurred in the aftermath of

A. government recognition of workers' right to organize unions.
B. deadly accidents.
C. production speedups.
D. wage cuts.
E. the formation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).

47. After Spain's defeat in the Spanish-American War in 1898, the Philippines

A. became an independent republic with a democratic constitution.
B. ceased to exist as a political entity, becoming a string of independent islands.
C. fought against the United States to gain independence but became a U.S. colony.
D. stayed within the strategic orbit of Spain.
E. became the first satellite nation of the Soviet Union.

48. Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. DuBois differed in their approaches to addressing discrimination against African Americans. Which statement below best represents Washington's position?

A. Since racial integration is not possible in the United States, African Americans should go back to Africa.
B. The best way for African Americans to improve their position in society is to gain vocational training to obtain jobs in agriculture, crafts, and manufacturing.
C. African Americans should engage in nonviolent civil disobedience to put pressure on the federal government to end discriminatory practices.
D. African Americans should pursue equality 'by any means necessary,' including violence in self-defense.
E. African Americans could best achieve their goals by running candidates for public office to vote out those who discriminate against them in state and federal government.

49. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal programs, which were designed to end the Great Depression,

A. were overwhelmingly effective in ending unemployment.
B. had a limited effect on ending the Depression.
C. led the United States into World War II.
D. were strongly supported by the Supreme Court.
E. led to the establishment of the Federal Reserve System.

50. The Supreme Court's decision in the case of Roe v. Wade was based on

A. freedom of the press.
B. the right of habeas corpus.
C. executive privilege.
D. the right to privacy.
E. eminent domain.

51. The adoption of the Barbados Slave Codes by South Carolina in 1696 resulted in

A. an increased number of indentured servants.
B. the development of the abolition movement in the North.
C. the development of chattel slavery in the colonies, which centered on race.
D. Bacon's Rebellion.
E. the development of a paternalistic view of slavery in South Carolina.

52. Which of the following was one of the main legal objections that the colonists made to Parliament in regard to the Stamp Act?

A. It taxed too many items used by the colonists in their daily lives.
B. It constituted an attempt to coerce the colonists to obey the crown.
C. It was a direct tax on the colonists.
D. It restricted colonial trade.
E. It placed extremely high taxes on colonial goods.

53. President Washington's actions in the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794 demonstrated the power of the central government to

A. suspend habeas corpus in times of extreme danger.
B. enforce the laws of the land.
C. prohibit the sale and consumption of liquor.
D. control the production of whiskey.
E. subsidize the production of grain used to make whiskey.

54. "Pompey, how do I look?"

"Mighty massa, mighty."

"What do you mean mighty, Pompey?"

"Why massa you look noble."

"What do you mean by 'noble'?"

"Why you look just like one lion."

"Now Pompey, where have you ever seen a lion?"

"I saw one down in yonder field the other day."

"Pompey, you foolish fellow, that was a jackass."

"Was it massa? Well, you look just like him."

Who would be most likely to have related this dialogue to whom?

A. A slaveholder to his son
B. A white overseer to his son
C. A slave mother to her son
D. A Confederate schoolboy to his friends
E. A white overseer to another white overseer

55. President Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction plan called for the former Confederate states to

A. pass the Civil Rights Act.
B. support the Freedman's Bureau.
C. endorse the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery.
D. arrest all the men who served in the Confederate government.
E. guarantee that the freedmen would attain the right to vote.

56. During the Gilded Age, the U.S. economy

A. faltered because industries failed to convert from wartime production to peacetime production after the Civil War.
B. grew at a rapid pace, but the gap between the wealthy and poor widened.
C. was characterized by a growing agricultural sector and a back-to-the-land movement.
D. suffered because of the nation's overdependence on the slave trade.
E. was cut off from the world economic system due to high tariffs and isolationist policies.

57. "Blue laws," supported by the Republican Party in many states during the Gilded Age,

A. regulated the number of hours children could work.
B. mandated that producers honestly portray the contents of their products.
C. provided price supports for struggling farmers.
D. reformed civil service procedures.
E. made illegal certain activities that were seen by some as immoral.

58. Which of the following is NOT a reason for the growth of the Communist Party in the United States in the 1930s?

A. The Communist Party tapped into many people's doubts about the efficacy of the capitalist system during the Great Depression.
B. The Communist Party, as part of its Popular Front strategy, avoided talk of impending revolution and advocated forming alliances with anti-fascist liberals.
C. The Communist Party's work on behalf of African Americans, as is evident in the Scottsboro case, won it many adherents.
D. The Communist Party's espionage work on behalf of the Soviet Union created an aura of dedication and audacity.
E. The large number of Eastern European immigrants who had supported communism back home gravitated toward the Communist Party in the United States.

59. The most important impetus behind the emergence of the modern Civil Rights Movement was

A. the founding of the NAACP.
B. lynchings.
C. the March on Washington.
D. the experience of African Americans in World War II.
E. the Freedom Rides.

60. In his farewell address, President Dwight D. Eisenhower

A. urged future administrations to avoid entanglements with European powers.
B. predicted that environmental issues would become more important in the nation's future.
C. castigated Joseph McCarthy for his excessive zeal.
D. advocated that the government wage a war on illicit drugs.
E. warned the nation of the power of the military-industrial complex.

61. The French and Indian War, which ended in 1763, greatly affected the American colonists because it

A. removed the French threat against the colonists.
B. resulted in the expansion of the colonies east of the Appalachian Mountains.
C. marked the beginning of the British policy of salutary neglect in the colonies.
D. removed the Indian threat from the frontier settlements.
E. marked the end of mercantilism.

62. Tensions between England and the United States grew between 1790 and 1812 for all of the following reasons EXCEPT the

A. impressment of U.S. seamen into British service.
B. British incitement to violence of the Indian population on the frontier.
C. British military occupation in the Ohio Valley.
D. XYZ Affair.
E. Americans' continued holding of Loyalists' lands.

63. The most important result of the development of interchangeable parts in the early 19th century was that it allowed

A. printers to make newspapers more easily.
B. farmers to harvest crops more easily.
C. manufacturers to make their assembly lines more efficient.
D. children to have safer toys.
E. coopers to cut staves in their barrels more precisely.

64. The Compromise of 1850 included all of the following EXCEPT

A. a strengthened Fugitive Slave Law.
B. permission to continue slavery but not slave auctions in Washington, D.C.
C. resolution of the Texas-New Mexico border dispute.
D. postponing a decision on the question of slavery in the California territory.
E. postponing a decision on the question of slavery in the Utah territory.

65. An important result of the impeachment crisis of 1868 was that

A. President Andrew Johnson was removed from office.
B. power shifted in the government from President Andrew Johnson to Congress.
C. President Andrew Johnson was able to defeat the Radicals' plan for Reconstruction.
D. impeachment proceedings motivated by political differences became common in subsequent years.
E. impeachment rules were rewritten to preclude another politically motivated impeachment.

66. To remedy problems American farmers faced in the last quarter of the 19th century, the Populist Party advocated a policy of

A. increasing the amount of currency in circulation.
B. raising interest rates on bank loans.
C. raising tariffs to keep foreign agricultural products out of the United States.
D. helping farmers resettle in urban areas.
E. curbing inflation.

67. The reasons for the United States's entry into World War I included the goal of

A. destroying Germany and its people.
B. organizing a "Great Parade" for freedom.
C. protecting U.S. interests in the Far East.
D. protecting freedom of the seas.
E. retaliating for the attack on the United States by Japan.

68. After World War II, NATO was formed primarily to

A. assist emerging nations in Asia.
B. stop the spread of Communism in Europe.
C. promote democratic reforms in Latin America.
D. provide economic aid to war-torn nations in Europe.
E. halt the growth of fascism in southern Africa.

69. The 1954, Vietnam peace negotiations in Geneva provided for all of the following EXCEPT

A. elections in 1956.
B. the elimination of a French presence in Vietnam.
C. a U.S. role in the future of Vietnam.
D. the temporary division of Vietnam into North and South.
E. political power for the Communist Party in Vietnam.

70. In the "smoking gun" tape, Richard Nixon discussed the possibility of asking the Central Intelligence Agency to stop the Federal Bureau of Investigation from investigating Watergate matters. In the language of the Articles of Impeachment against Nixon, this charge became

A. breaking and entering.
B. taping people without their knowledge.
C. firing the special prosecutor.
D. obstruction of justice.
E. lying to the American people.

71. According to John Adams, "The Revolution was effected before the war commenced." By this he meant

A. taxation without representation was the real issue that led to the Revolutionary War in 1776.
B. the colonists in America had developed a unique character, independent of Great Britain, before the actual revolution took place.
C. the American colonists had reached a point in their development in which a separation from England was necessary.
D. the American Revolution was the result of the American policy of salutary neglect.
E. the Battle of Lexington and Concord had taken place before the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

72. The "Era of Good Feeling" can best be characterized as years of

A. active participation by the United States in world affairs.
B. economic growth within the United States.
C. lower tariffs on imported goods.
D. harmony over the issue of slavery.
E. political control of the government by the Federalist Party.

73. The accusation of a "corrupt bargain" in the election of 1824 was significant because

A. it marked the beginning of the spoils system in the administration of Andrew Jackson.
B. it was a cross-party agreement between Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams.
C. it led to the overwhelming election of Andrew Jackson in 1828.
D. John Quincy Adams had a majority of the popular vote but not a majority of the electoral vote.
E. it led to the political demise of Henry Clay.

74. "I stood alone on that wild prairie. Looking westward I saw my husband driving slowly over the plain[.] [T]urning my face once more to the east, my dear sister's footsteps were fast widening the distance between us. For the time I knew not which way to go, nor whom to follow. But in a few moments I rallied my forces … and soon overtook the slowly moving men who were bearing my husband and child over the prairie."

Which of the following statements is NOT true of the above excerpt from the diary of a woman beginning her journey to the West?

A. It reflects the pioneer spirit.
B. It describes a conflict between a husband and wife about going west.
C. It shows how irrationally indecisive some people were.
D. It describes the fear of going into the unknown.
E. It shows that the wife ultimately chose her husband and child over her sister.

75. The effect of Jim Crow laws, passed by Southern states after the Reconstruction period, was

A. stricter voting requirements for African Americans.
B. the loss of citizenship for many African Americans.
C. separate economies-one run by and for whites and one run by and for African Americans.
D. a shift in African American loyalties from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party.
E. racial segregation in public facilities.

76. Why did the Ghost Dance movement thrive among Native Americans in the 1880s?

A. Many Native Americans believed that it would protect them in conflicts with whites.
B. It became a popular tourist attraction.
C. Many Native Americans believed it would end a severe drought.
D. It was a way for a younger generation of Native Americans to resist the authority of their elders.
E. Native American culture was finally given respect and recognition in mainstream American culture.

77. Senator Henry Teller agreed to vote for a declaration of war against Spain in 1898 only on the condition that

A. Cuba would be granted its independence if the United States defeated Spain.
B. the United States would give up all claims to overseas possessions.
C. all of Spain's possessions would become U.S. possessions if the United States won the war.
D. President McKinley would initiate a progressive domestic agenda.
E. racially integrated units would be used in the war.

78. Henry Ford's financial success can be attributed to all of the following EXCEPT

A. using an assembly line to produce an automobile every 93 minutes.
B. reducing the price of a Model T from $850 to $300.
C. attracting workers to his work force by paying them $5 per day.
D. retaining skilled European craftsmen and mechanics at his factories to ensure quality.
E. creating efficient work processes, based on the ideas of Frederick Winslow Taylor.

79. All of the following increased participation in the political process in the 20th century EXCEPT the

A. 19th Amendment, giving women the right to vote.
B. 17th Amendment, providing for the direct election of U.S. senators.
C. 14th Amendment, granting civil rights to freedmen and women.
D. Voting Rights Act of 1965.
E. passage of state referendum acts.

80. Which of the following organizations advocated carrying guns for self-defense?

A. Students for a Democratic Society
B. Congress of Racial Equality
C. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
D. Black Panther Party
E. Vietnam Day Committee

81. Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry objected to the proposed Constitution in 1787 because they felt that the Constitution would

A. undermine the principles for which the Revolutionary War was fought.
B. create too much democracy.
C. support slavery.
D. support states' rights.
E. create a weak executive.

82. I. "The Kansas-Nebraska Act authorizes the further extension of slavery and we have, do now, and will continue to protest most emphatically against … slavery." (1854)

II. "The territories were the common property of the several states. As a joint agent of the states, Congress has no power to deny the citizens of any state the right to take their property into a territory… Therefore slavery is legal in the territories. If Wilmot carries, woe, woe I say to the union." (1850)

III. "We beg the slave owners to pause before they proceed further to disturb the peace we had hoped the Compromise of 1850 would have made perpetual." (1854)

Which of the above statement(s) would John C. Calhoun have supported?

A. I
B. II
C. III
D. I and III
E. II and III

83. Which of the following provisions would NOT be found in the various Black Codes passed after the Civil War?

A. A ban on African Americans carrying weapons
B. A prohibition on interracial marriages
C. A requirement that African Americans serve in the state National Guard units for two years
D. A requirement that African Americans attain a permit if they wished to travel
E. A ban on African Americans serving on juries

84. The federal government helped with the building of the transcontinental railroad by

A. providing the railroad companies with free iron and steel.
B. organizing a publicly owned railroad company.
C. raising the tariff to fund the project.
D. providing the railroad companies with land grants.
E. setting up the Interstate Commerce Commission to oversee the project.

85. The Treaty of Paris, which concluded the Spanish-American War in 1898, contained all of the following provisions EXCEPT that

A. Spain cede Puerto Rico to the United States.
B. Spain cede the Hawaiian Islands to the United States.
C. the United States agree to pay $20 million to Spain for the Philippines.
D. Guam become a U.S. territory.
E. Cuba be granted its independence.

86. Which of the following was a reason the Democratic Party failed to win the presidency in the 1920s?

A. Its opposition to Jim Crow laws alienated Southern voters.
B. Internal splits existed between urban moderates and rural conservatives.
C. It had opposed U.S. involvement in World War I.
D. Voters saw the party as responsible for the Great Depression.
E. Voters perceived that the party was overly friendly to big business.

87. Herbert Hoover's idea of "rugged individualism" suggested that

A. people were able to survive hard times through their inner strength and resources.
B. the government should give direct aid to the people in hard times.
C. all of the basic needs of the people are the sole responsibility of the government.
D. difficult times called for exceptional individuals to exercise power.
E. the government and the people are partners who must share equal responsibility for the well-being of the populace.

88. The U.S. government allocated massive sums of money to math and science the 1950s in response to which of the following?

A. The Soviet Union landing men on the moon
B. Fidel Castro coming to power in Cuba
C. The Soviet Union developing the world's first hydrogen bomb
D. The Soviet satellite Sputnik successfully orbiting the earth
E. The United States failing to produce a Nobel Prize winner in science

89. Which chief justice of the Supreme Court was said to be the leader of a very activist court?

A. William Rehnquist
B. Earl Warren
C. Felix Frankfurter
D. Roger Taney
E. Warren Burger

90. The New Right of the 1990s could best be described as

A. a group of conservative Democrats who sought to move their party away from its liberal agenda.
B. a liberal reaction to the conservative direction of the Democratic Party.
C. popular support for President Clinton's welfare reform policies.
D. an ultraconservative group within the Republican Party that gained control of Congress in 1994.
E. a group of Richard Nixon Republicans who opposed the impeachment of President Clinton.