SAT US History Subject Test: Full-length Practice Test 10

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Question 90 questions

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1. Roger Williams, the founder of the colony of Rhode Island, supported the idea that

A. civil authority should be separated from church authority.
B. church leaders should be the leaders of the colonies.
C. the Native American population should be resettled to the West.
D. the theocracy that existed in Massachusetts Bay should be extended to other colonies.
E. women should enjoy equal rights with men.

2. President Andrew Jackson vetoed the Bank Recharter Bill because he

A. was a Democrat and it was a Whig measure.
B. disagreed with the Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison.
C. believed that paper money was the most important element for economic success.
D. was opposed to the bank's monopolistic power, calling it a "monster."
E. believed it was too late to bring up the question.

3. "The government, Sir, is the independent offspring of the popular will. It is not the creature of the state legislatures; nay more, if the whole truth must be told, the people brought it into existence, established it, and have hitherto supported it for the very purpose, amongst others, of imposing certain salutary restraints on state sovereignties …. The people, then, Sir, erected this government. They gave it a constitution, and in the constitution they have enumerated powers which they bestow on it."

From Daniel Webster's "Second Reply to Hayne"

What argument was Daniel Webster responding to in the above passage?

A. The theory that the people were the source of power in the Constitution
B. The theory that the tariff was unconstitutional
C. The Compact Theory that the states were sovereign
D. The Theory of Perpetual Union that the union had existed before the Constitution
E. The theory that sovereignty rests in the general government

4. The Chinese Exclusion Act, passed in 1882, had the effect of

A. exempting China from participation in the League of Nations.
B. dividing China into "spheres of influence."
C. banning most Chinese people from immigrating to the United States.
D. establishing the "open-door policy" in regard to trade with China.
E. raising tariffs on goods from China.

5. The establishment of standard time zones occurred

A. at the time of the American Revolution to standardize measurements in the new nation.
B. in the 1880s to facilitate scheduling of railroad lines.
C. during World War I to coordinate the war effort better.
D. in the 1920s to allow for the coordination of nationally broadcast radio shows.
E. as part of the New Deal efforts at modernization.

6. Among the key components of President Theodore Roosevelt's "Square Deal" program were

A. a national bank and internal improvements.
B. unemployment insurance and relief for poor families.
C. opposition to U.S. imperialism and autonomy for Latin American nations.
D. regulation of trusts and consumer protection.
E. racial integration in public facilities and voting rights for African Americans.

7. Black Tuesday is a significant day in U.S. history because it marks the beginning of

A. U.S. involvement in World War II in 1941.
B. the Depression of 1929.
C. the atomic age with the bombing of Hiroshima in 1945.
D. World War I in 1914.
E. the great blackout in New York City in 1976.

8. The increased membership in the NAACP and CORE during World War II resulted from the

A. discriminatory job practices against African Americans during World War II.
B. Black Power movement, which had developed after World War I.
C. establishment of the Fair Employment Practices Commission.
D. addition of Mexicans and women to the workforce during World War II.
E. preference for Native American recruits over African American recruits during World War II.

9. The main goal of the Marshall Plan was to

A. rebuild European economies with a recovery program.
B. assist the agricultural economies of Latin America.
C. give aid to those communist nations that agreed to adopt democracy.
D. provide military aid to South Vietnam.
E. place Japan under a "nuclear umbrella."

10. Two significant events that occurred during the administration of Ronald Reagan were

A. the removal of the Berlin Wall and the break-up of the Soviet Union.
B. the Camp David Accords and Declaration of Human Rights.
C. Watergate scandal and the overture to China.
D. the end of the Iran hostage crisis and the invasion of Grenada.
E. War on Poverty and the first major escalation of the Vietnam War.

11. Which of the following contributed to the economic development of the colonies during the 1600s?

I. The addition of slavery as a source of labor

II. The growth of trade and commerce due to good harbors and an extensive river system

III. The British policy of salutary neglect

IV. The development of universal manhood suffrage

V. The Great Awakening

A. I, II, III, IV, and V
B. I, II, and III
C. I, II, and V
D. III, IV, and V
E. I, III, and V

12. image

What incident is referred to in the map title above?

A. King Phillip's War
B. The Pequot War
C. The disappearance of the buffalo
D. The protests of Tecumseh
E. The Trail of Tears

13. In the post-Reconstruction South, the economic arrangement known as sharecropping involved

A. groups of freed African American laborers working for wages on large plantations.
B. agricultural workers signing contracts that bound them to a particular plantation for a period of time.
C. former slaves being granted ownership rights to tracts of land that had previously been owned by slaveholders.
D. landowners dividing up their land and allowing growers to use plots of land in exchange for a portion of the yearly yield.
E. the gradual transition from a purely cash-crop agricultural economy to a mixed economy of farming and manufacturing.

14. The Mugwumps were Republican leaders who left the Republican Party in 1884 and supported the Democratic Party because they were

A. angry with the Republican Party for not taking a stand against the spread of Jim Crow policies in the Southern states.
B. offered cabinet positions if the Democrat Grover Cleveland won the presidential election.
C. disappointed with the Republican presidential candidate's history of corruption.
D. weary of the Republican Party's opposition to immigration.
E. disgusted with the violence that had been done to the Native Americans of the Great Plains.

15. The Social Security Act of 1935 was important in that it

A. offered direct relief to eligible unemployed and disabled individuals.
B. reformed the existing federal unemployment insurance system.
C. created a new agency to monitor investment in the securities industry.
D. provided relief for businesses in financial trouble as a result of the Depression.
E. succeeded in relieving the problems of the banking system.

16. All of the following are reasons for the anti-immigrant sentiment that resulted in the quota system of the 1920s EXCEPT

A. the demand for unskilled labor in American factories decreased as World War I ended.
B. many Americans perceived that anarchists and socialists were immigrating from Europe and contributing to social unrest in the United States.
C. racist ideas that held Jews, Slavs, and Italians as inferior gained credence in the United States.
D. some Protestants feared that the United States would change for the worse because of the influx of Catholics and Jews.
E. immigrants often took positions as indentured servants, which undermined the earning potential of American wage workers.

17. As a result of the Proclamation of Neutrality issued by the United States in 1939, the United States

A. favored the Axis powers.
B. established a "cash-and-carry" system of trade with belligerent nations.
C. withdrew from the League of Nations.
D. was criticized by the Allies and Axis powers alike.
E. joined the European powers in appeasing Germany.

18. The immediate cause of U.S. military involvement in the Korean peninsula in 1950 was the

A. crossing of the Yalu River by the Chinese "volunteers."
B. Japanese invasion of Manchuria.
C. creation of the DMZ (demilitarized zone) along the 38th parallel.
D. acquisition of a nuclear weapons by North Korea.
E. attack by North Korea on South Korea.

19. As a result of President Truman's insistence that the Democratic Party include a civil rights plank in its 1948 platform,

A. substantial numbers of white voters abandoned the Democratic Party, allowing the Republican Party to win the general election that November.
B. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act within the next four years.
C. African American activists, encouraged that civil rights were becoming part of the national debate, founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
D. Martin Luther King Jr. was encouraged to organize the March on Washington.
E. many Southern Democrats, or Dixiecrats, left the Democratic convention and formed the States' Rights Democratic Party.

20. The Pentagon Papers contained information on all of the following presidents EXCEPT

A. Dwight D. Eisenhower.
B. Richard Nixon.
C. Lyndon Johnson.
D. Jimmy Carter.
E. John Kennedy.

21. Columbus, Magellan, and Balboa were similar in that

A. their voyages were all sponsored by the Spanish government.
B. they sailed across the Pacific Ocean.
C. they were killed by native inhabitants of North America.
D. they accumulated great personal wealth as a result of their explorations.
E. they found an all-water route to the East.

22. The delegates at the Constitutional Convention agreed that

A. Congress would not interfere with the importation of slaves for 20 years.
B. an import duty could not be placed on slaves brought into the United States.
C. the government was not permitted to tax imports.
D. slaves were to be counted as three-fifths of a person for the purposes of representation but not for the purposes of taxation.
E. slavery was not to be prohibited in any territory acquired by the United States in the future.

23. "The manhood of the slave is conceded. It is admitted in the fact that Southern statute books are covered with enactments forbidding, under severe fines and penalties, the teaching of the slave to read or to write."

-Frederick Douglass, 1852

Why did Douglass point out that there were laws against teaching slaves to read?

A. To show that the Southern statute books were unfair
B. To show that since only humans can read, slaves were human
C. To warn slaves that they were in danger of fines and penalties if they learned to read
D. To concede that the Southerners had control of the slaves
E. To show that the laws would not be obeyed

24. All of the following are considered factors in the collapse of Reconstruction in the 1870s EXCEPT

A. many Northerners simply lost interest in the issues and problems of the South.
B. a compromise following the disputed election of 1876 committed the Republican Party to withdrawing the last troops from the South.
C. the South had largely complied with the goals of Reconstruction, and the Radical Republicans felt satisfied that fairness and equality would exist in the South.
D. the Democrats in the South grew increasingly aggressive in asserting their right to run the governments of the Southern states.
E. many of the leading Radical Republicans, who had guided Congressional Reconstruction, had died by the 1870s.

25. The Bessemer process, which was important in the industrial growth of the United States in the second half of the 19th century, involved

A. using time-and-motion studies to streamline production and eliminate inefficiencies.
B. moving a product from worker to worker by a conveyor belt as it is being manufactured.
C. injecting air into molten iron to remove carbon and produce steel inexpensively.
D. connecting the various sites of an operation by telegraph wires to facilitate communication.
E. mass-producing interchangeable parts to decrease dependence on skilled craftspeople.

26. Railroads challenged several of the "Granger laws" in court, claiming that they were unconstitutional. The Supreme Court rejected this claim in Munn v. Illinois on the grounds that

A. regulating business activities for the public good is a legitimate power of the states.
B. criticizing corporate activities is protected by the 1st Amendment.
C. the principle of eminent domain should only be applied if an overriding public need is involved.
D. railroad companies were not considered "citizens" and only citizens can initiate lawsuits.
E. contracts between the states and individuals or corporations are binding.

27. image

The conclusion that can be drawn from these charts concerning the New Deal is that it

A. had little effect on the number of farmers who lost their land as a result of the Great Depression.
B. helped protect depositors and farmers from the effects of the Great Depression.
C. failed to prevent bank failures.
D. had no significant effect on farm foreclosures or bank failures until the outbreak of World War II.
E. was directly responsible for the establishment of the Federal Reserve System.

28. All of the following events contributed to Cold War tensions EXCEPT the

A. rejection of the Treaty of Versailles by the isolationist Senate.
B. U.S. airlift of food to the citizens of Berlin.
C. massive economic support for Western Europe through the Marshall Plan.
D. united support of the Greek monarchy in 1947.
E. the establishment of the defensive North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

29. Napalm, a focus of antiwar protests during the Vietnam War, was

A. an explosive weapon that divided into parts, killing many people.
B. a nerve gas that paralyzed the enemy.
C. a drug used to interrogate prisoners.
D. a weapon that burst into flames after adhering to its victim.
E. a class of biological weapons that caused rare diseases.

30. The McCain-Feingold Bill

A. provided for banking reform and set up the FDIC.
B. introduced campaign finance reform by limiting soft-money contributions to political parties and prohibiting advocacy ads.
C. built thousands of miles of interstate highways after World War II.
D. prevented the president from sending troops to a foreign country for more than 60 days without a vote from Congress.
E. would have made Reconstruction the responsibility of the Congress rather than the president if Lincoln hadn't vetoed it.

31. The Neutrality Act of 1793, Jay's Treaty of 1795, and the Convention of 1800 were all similar in that they

A. were negotiated during the administration of George Washington.
B. ended the practice of impressment.
C. allowed the United States to navigate the Mississippi River freely.
D. were supported by the people of the United States.
E. delayed U.S. involvement in a war.

32. image

The map represents the United States immediately after the

A. Louisiana Purchase.
B. Civil War.
C. Proclamation of 1763.
D. Northwest Ordinance.
E. Missouri Compromise.

33. To become an artisan in the 1830s, one had to

A. study at a vocational school.
B. attend two years of university.
C. attend grammar school for five years.
D. join a union affiliated with the American Federation of Labor.
E. become an apprentice to a master craftsman.

34. As part of the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Law stated that

A. all African Americans were slaves.
B. all African Americans suspected of being slaves should be brought to a trial by jury.
C. every accused African American had the right to a defense lawyer.
D. all citizens were responsible for catching fugitive slaves.
E. each state had to determine whether it would comply with the law.

35. The Credit Mobilier scandal of the 1870s and the Teapot Dome of the 1920s are similar in that they both demonstrate the

A. lack of government oversight over the savings and loan industry.
B. cutthroat political competition between the Democrat and Republican Parties, which has often resulted in underhanded campaign practices.
C. prevalence of corrupt municipal political machines in the United States.
D. tendency of an overzealous press to invent stories in order to sell newspapers.
E. willingness of politicians to accept bribes from large corporations in exchange for granting these corporations political favors.

36. Horizontal integration occurs in business when a company

A. acquires ownership or control over other companies in the same business.
B. controls all aspects of the production and distribution of its product.
C. creates locally owned franchises.
D. changes its ownership from a single proprietor to a board of directors.
E. uses scientific management techniques to increase efficiency.

37. The deployment of nuclear missiles to Cuba by the Soviet Union in 1962

A. displayed Soviet nuclear superiority over the United States.
B. prompted a blockade of Cuba by President Kennedy.
C. enabled Fidel Castro to establish a dictatorship.
D. helped Kennedy's re-election bid.
E. provoked the Bay of Pigs attack.

38. Buddhist monks set themselves on fire in 1963 as a protest against

A. French imperialism in Vietnam.
B. American support for Indonesian President Sukharno.
C. the puppet Diem regime in South Vietnam.
D. anti-Buddhist policies of the Communist leader Ho Chi Minh.
E. the Tet Offensive, because it broke a cease-fire.

39. Andrew Goodman, Michael Schwerner, and James Chaney were lynched in Mississippi during Freedom Summer, when they were attempting to

A. secure the admission of African Americans to the state university.
B. desegregate city buses.
C. desegregate lunch counters.
D. integrate highway rest stops.
E. help African Americans register to vote.

40. When President Bill Clinton was tried by the Senate in 1999, it was necessary that

A. Hillary Rodham Clinton testify before the Judiciary Committee.
B. Bill Clinton appear before the Senate.
C. Chief Justice William Rehnquist preside over the impeachment trial.
D. Vice President Al Gore temporarily assume the presidency.
E. Kenneth Starr resign as Independent Counsel.

41. A major reason for the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1620 was to

A. provide freedom of worship for Quakers.
B. establish profitable businesses.
C. create a fully democratic government.
D. provide freedom of worship for Puritans.
E. establish a colony with complete separation of church and state.

42. According to Washington's Farewell Address, U.S. interests would best served by a foreign policy of

A. involvement in world affairs.
B. support for democratic revolutions.
C. expansion into South America.
D. isolation from European affairs.
E. alliances with nations that support U.S. growth.

43. Dred Scott believed that he was entitled to freedom because he lived for a period of time in

A. unsettled territory in the West.
B. Illinois, which had been organized under the Northwest Ordinance.
C. Massachusetts, which had abolished slavery.
D. Kansas, which was being organized under the policy of popular sovereignty.
E. Missouri, where he had been born.

44. Which of the following statements regarding the Confederate army's firing on Fort Sumter in 1861 is true?

A. Abraham Lincoln had previously sent troops to defend the fort.
B. Jefferson Davis had offered to protect the ship that came to rescue the Union soldiers.
C. Abraham Lincoln had previously decided to abandon the fort.
D. Abraham Lincoln had previously sent supplies without extensive military protection.
E. Jefferson Davis had left the decision to fire upon the fort up to the troops in Charleston, South Carolina.

45. The films Birth of a Nation, directed by D. W. Griffith, and Gone with the Wind, based on a novel by Margaret Mitchell, are similar in that they both

A. revolutionized the way silent films were made.
B. presented the Old South in ways sympathetic to the former slaveholding class.
C. were rejected by the public but were appreciated by critics for their artistry.
D. dealt with the tensions and conflicts of the Revolutionary War era.
E. offered escapism to the poor during the Great Depression.

46. The U.S. experiment in Prohibition, which lasted from 1920 to 1933, demonstrated that

A. it is difficult for the government to enforce laws that are unpopular with large segments of the public.
B. granting women the right to vote opened the door to a variety of reforms that were previously unthinkable.
C. the Republican Party was more in tune with popular sentiments than the Democratic Party.
D. the power of the federal government can be successfully used to change the public's behavior.
E. the issue of states' rights versus federal power had not yet been resolved.

47. Which of the following pairs of laws were enacted as part of President Lyndon Johnson's "Great Society" program?

A. The Interstate Highway Act and the National Defense Education Act
B. The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act and the National Origins Act
C. The Social Security Act and the Wagner Act
D. The Medicare Act and the Equal Opportunity Employment Act
E. The Servicemen's Readjustment Act and the Taft-Hartley Act

48. All of the following were part of the Watergate scandal EXCEPT

A. the publication of the Pentagon Papers by the New York Times and the Washington Post.
B. Saturday night massacre, in which one attorney general resigned and another was fired.
C. giving money to rebels in Nicaragua.
D. the revelations of a smoking gun tape, which provided proof of obstruction of justice.
E. the payment of hush money to keep conspirators quiet.

49. Muhammad Ali was a significant figure in the 1960s, '70s, and '80s for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

A. he refused to serve in the Vietnam War.
B. he converted to Islam and adopted a Muslim name.
C. he campaigned for Ronald Reagan in 1980.
D. he became a symbol for civil rights.
E. he won a gold medal at the 1960 Olympics.

50. Which of the following is a true statement in regard to foreign policy during the Clinton Administration?

A. The United States continued a policy of isolationism.
B. Clinton labeled the Soviet Union the "evil empire" to gain the support of congressional Republicans.
C. Clinton sent more troops in peacetime around the world than any other president.
D. Clinton's policies were, by and large, opposed by the American people.
E. Clinton distanced the United States from NATO actions.

51. image

The cartoonist was most likely portraying discontent over the issue of

A. Federalist control of the judiciary.
B. state control of interstate commerce.
C. impressment of U.S. seamen by captains of British ships.
D. the Citizen Genet affair.
E. the embargo imposed by Presidents Jefferson and Madison.

52. Representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania wrote an amendment to an appropriations bill for the Mexican War in 1846, which stated that "there shall be no slavery or involuntary servitude in any territory acquired from Mexico." These words represented a key element of the

A. gradual abolitionist position of James Tallmadge.
B. Free Soil idea of the moderate antislavery politicians.
C. immediate abolitionism of William Lloyd Garrison.
D. nativist platform of the Know Nothing Party.
E. popular sovereignty position.

53. Stephen Douglas's Freeport Doctrine stated that

A. slavery should be excluded from all territories west of the Mississippi River.
B. the Union cannot survive half slave and half free.
C. the Union must be preserved at all costs.
D. liberty is more important than the Union.
E. slavery can only exist where it has been supported by local law.

54. Which of the following statements is true in regard to President Theodore Roosevelt's environmental polices?

A. Roosevelt rejected the notion of conservation because he allowed the "good trusts" to develop some areas in national parks for business purposes.
B. Roosevelt rejected any attempts at government protection of wilderness areas, arguing instead that market forces should determine land use.
C. Roosevelt appointed the pro-business James Watt as Secretary of the Interior, angering many environmentalists, such as John Muir.
D. Roosevelt worked closely with the head of the U.S. Forest Service, Gifford Pinchot, to set aside land for national parks, national monuments, and wildlife refuges.
E. While Roosevelt was an avid outdoorsman, he believed that any action on behalf of the environment should be taken at the state level.

55. The Grapes of Wrath, John Steinbeck's Depression-era novel, chronicles the lives of

A. Mexican migrant farm workers.
B. displaced Dust Bowl farmers.
C. Southern sharecroppers.
D. coal miners from West Virginia.
E. unemployed autoworkers from Michigan.

56. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's actions were noteworthy because he

A. simplified the operations of the federal government.
B. implemented a sweeping civil rights program.
C. extended the direct influence of the government into the lives of the people.
D. succeeded in being elected five times to the presidency.
E. successfully concluded World War II.

57. Which of the following statements about the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act, passed by Congress over President Truman's veto, is true?

A. It was welcomed by suburban developers because it earmarked large sums of money for highway construction.
B. It was labeled the "Magna Carta for organized labor" by AFL-CIO head George Meany because it made it legal for workers to organize unions.
C. It was condemned by unions because it barred closed shops and allowed the president to call an 80-day "cooling-off" period before a strike could proceed.
D. It was supported by veterans groups because it provided aid to soldiers returning from World War II for college education and home ownership.
E. It was supported by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People because it required the federal government to end racial discrimination in defense industries.

58. The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party was formed in

A. 1912, to support the Progressive candidacy of Theodore Roosevelt.
B. 1948, to support President Truman's civil rights initiatives.
C. 1962, to support prayer in public schools.
D. 1964, to support African American representation at the Democratic convention.
E. 1968, to support the presidential bid of Governor George Wallace.

59. Why did the Vietnamese build hundreds of miles of tunnels?

A. To hide from French soldiers
B. To hide from American soldiers
C. To prepare for military operations
D. To live in them for months at a time
E. All of the above

60. The "Contract with America," put forward by congressional Republicans in 1994, included proposals to

A. decrease income taxes and force welfare recipients to find work.
B. decrease military spending and increase the education budget.
C. protect the rights of homosexuals in the military and create a single-payer health care system.
D. reinforce the separation of church and state and reform the campaign finance system.
E. make English the national language and eliminate bilingual education.

61. Mercantilist policies contributed to the desire of the American colonies to become independent from Britain for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

A. they restricted the colonies' trade with French, Dutch, and Spanish colonies in America.
B. they restricted colonial production.
C. they involved the exercise of British authority over the colonies.
D. they restricted trade among the different British colonies in America.
E. they required that colonial goods go through British ports on their way to other countries.

62. The Hartford Convention of 1814 was important because it

A. was held by disgruntled Republicans unhappy with the War of 1812.
B. led to the death of the Federalist Party.
C. was supported by the South and West.
D. led to the prominence of Henry Clay.
E. changed the Constitution by engineering the passage of several amendments to increase the power of state governments.

63. In 1860, the Democratic Party split into two parts over

A. the admission of California as a free state.
B. the Missouri question, which decided fate of the Louisiana Territory.
C. national slave codes, which called for all states to have slavery.
D. internal improvements, which called for the building of the transcontinental railroad.
E. the Second Bank of the United States, leading many Democrats to join the Whig Party.

64. The Civil War has been called the "Second American Revolution" because

A. it made the United States totally independent of Great Britain, which, for the first time, accepted its former colony's political and economic independence.
B. it eliminated the old economic system of slavery and set the country on the road to rapid and unhindered economic growth.
C. the methods of fighting were directly inherited from the war for independence.
D. Abraham Lincoln has been called the second George Washington because of his statesmanship and his military leadership.
E. the problems of race, the fundamental contradiction in American society, were solved.

65. The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 and the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 are similar in that they both

A. were struck down by the Supreme Court.
B. put into practice the theory of laissez-faire.
C. were aimed at limiting the power of the railroad companies.
D. extended the power of government into the regulation of business.
E. recognized the right of workers to form unions.

66. Which of the following statements is true in regard to the role of the Progressive movement in electoral politics?

A. It refused to work with either of the major political parties, labeling them the "parties of big business."
B. Reform-minded politicians in both the Democratic and the Republican Parties worked on Progressive issues.
C. Progressives worked exclusively within the Republican Party, perceiving that the Democratic Party was controlled by special interests.
D. Progressive activists worked for the defeat of the Bull Moose Party in the 1912 election and worked to support the re-election of President Taft.
E. Progressives generally ignored the electoral arena, arguing that no meaningful change could come through electoral politics.

67. The most significant change in voting patterns in the 1930s was the

A. decrease in the percentage of women who voted.
B. shift among African American voters from the Republican to the Democratic Party.
C. large percentage of voters registered to the Communist Party in presidential elections.
D. overall decrease in the number of people who voted at all.
E. large number of recent immigrants who registered with the Republican Party.

68. The End Poverty in California campaign and the Share the Wealth Society could best be described as

A. campaigns that argued the New Deal did not go far enough.
B. local programs under the auspices of the New Deal.
C. labor organizations formed by the Communist Party.
D. conservative attacks on the "dictatorial" New Deal.
E. women's organizations that thought male-dominated organizations did not understand the realities of poverty.

69. William H. Whyte's 1956 book The Organization Man and Sloan Wilson's 1955 book The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit are similar in that they both

A. analyzed the growing sense of conformity and the loss of individualism in American society.
B. were held up as examples of "subversive" literature by the House Un-American Activities Committee.
C. called attention to the fact that the Soviet Union was outpacing the United States in economic output.
D. were influential in reshaping standard curricula at American business administration programs.
E. criticized the "beatnik" ethic of laziness, indulgence, and promiscuity.

70. The Saturday Night Massacre was important in that it

A. exposed the role of the Ku Klux Klan as mortal enemies of the Civil Rights Movement.
B. showed that the CIA had cooperated with the South Vietnamese to assassinate a head of state.
C. led to the indictment of Lieutenant William Calley in connection with the killing of unarmed civilians in Vietnam.
D. created a backlash against the insanity defense when John Hinckley was declared innocent of the attempted assassination of President Reagan.
E. set the stage for the downfall of President Nixon.

71. One of the main reasons for the writing of the Declaration of Independence was

A. to establish a new political philosophy.
B. to state an existing political philosophy.
C. to allow the colonies to obtain new lands.
D. to gain support for the Revolution among the colonists.
E. to protect human rights.

72. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was significant for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that it

A. provided for freedom of religion in the Northwest Territory.
B. established militias for protection against the French.
C. prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory.
D. encouraged the fair treatment of Native Americans.
E. provided for the orderly settlement of the Northwest Territory.

73. Which idea is most consistent with the political philosophy of Alexander Hamilton?

A. There should be rotation of people who hold public office.
B. The Constitution should be loosely interpreted.
C. The people can be trusted to make the right decisions if given the proper information.
D. All people have a right to be educated.
E. The states should have more power than the central government.

74. When Lincoln said "Four score and seven years ago…," he was reminding his audience of the

A. inauguration of George Washington.
B. convening of the Constitutional Convention.
C. writing of the Mayflower Compact.
D. signing of the Declaration of Independence.
E. landing at Jamestown.

75. The platform of the People's (Populist) Party, ratified at its founding convention in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1892, consisted of all the following demands EXCEPT

A. a graduated income tax.
B. an increase in the supply of money.
C. the eight-hour day for workers.
D. government ownership of railroads.
E. an end to immigration restrictions.

76. Montgomery Ward and Richard Sears both played a significant role in the history of American commerce in the 19th century by

A. starting chains of "five-and-dime" stores carrying a large variety of items.
B. creating "layaway" plans, where customers would pay a only portion of the list price up front.
C. creating mail-order catalogs, allowing rural people to purchase a wide assortment of goods.
D. selling mass-produced items made in the United States instead of handcrafted items made in England.
E. adding refrigeration to their grocery stores, allowing them to feature a variety of fresh food.

77. President Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policy initiatives included all of the following EXCEPT

A. securing the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty with Panama to build a canal through Panama.
B. brokering a peace treaty between Russia and Japan.
C. establishing a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine asserting a U.S. right to intervene in Latin American affairs.
D. popularizing the expression "speak softly but carry a big stick" in regard to dealing with foreign nations.
E. negotiating a treaty with Spain following the Spanish-American War.

78. President Woodrow Wilson's actions during the debate in the U.S. Senate over the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles demonstrated his

A. desire to compromise with Congress.
B. all-or-nothing attitude in regard to acceptance of the League of Nations.
C. dislike for the actions of the Allied nations.
D. desire to implement an isolationist policy.
E. unwillingness to accept loss of control over military actions.

79. U.S. foreign policy with regard to conflicts in the Middle East since the 1960s has been influenced by the desire to balance the

A. independence of Israel with the need for oil from the Arab states.
B. rights of the Palestinians with support for Libya.
C. interests of Muslims and Hindus.
D. expansionist policies of the Soviet Union and preserving the territorial integrity of the Palestinian state.
E. preservation of human rights with maintaining free trade.

80. When many savings and loan banks in the 1980s failed, the federal government

A. forced the bank owners to pay the depositors their proper shares.
B. allowed the market to take its natural course.
C. allowed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to reimburse the depositors.
D. used tax money to bail out the banks.
E. reorganized the banking industry by passing the Glass-Steagall Act.

81. Which of the following statements regarding the American Revolution is true?

A. Benjamin Franklin led protests against the British in New York.
B. Thomas Paine established the Committees of Correspondence to disseminate information during the Revolutionary War.
C. John Adams defended the British Soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre.
D. Crispus Attucks was killed at Bunker (Breed's) Hill.
E. Patrick Henry was hung by the British for protesting the Tea Tax.

82. Shays's Rebellion was important in that it

A. highlighted the slave problems that existed in the United States in 1787.
B. was crushed by a militia sent by the Congress under the Articles of Confederation.
C. was a catalyst that led to the scrapping of the Articles of Confederation.
D. led to the adoption of the Bill of Rights.
E. was the "shot heard round the world."

83. During the John Adams administration, the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

A. introduced the idea of nullification.
B. resolved the conflict over the Alien and Sedition Acts.
C. were supported by the Federalists.
D. were written by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton.
E. were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

84. In the Emancipation Proclamation, Abraham Lincoln stated that all

A. slaves in the states in rebellion would be freed.
B. slaves in the border states would be freed.
C. slaves in the United States would be free at the end of the Civil War.
D. children born to slaves would be born free.
E. slaves in the North would be freed.

85. All of the following books could be used to justify the prevailing economic conditions in Gilded Age America EXCEPT

A. Risen From the Ranks (1874) by Horatio Alger.
B. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other (1883) by William Graham Sumner.
C. Looking Backward: 2000-1887 (1888) by Edward Bellamy.
D. The Wealth of Nations (1776) by Adam Smith.
E. The Gospel of Wealth (1889) by Andrew Carnegie.

86. Josiah Strong and Alfred T. Mahan were American writers in the late 19th century who were noted for

A. opposing Jim Crow laws and lynching.
B. exposing urban corruption.
C. depicting regional customs and dialects.
D. supporting an imperialist foreign policy.
E. describing the horrors of war.

87. Although the Progressive movement consisted of a diversity of interests, a common belief held by most Progressives was that

A. the federal government should nationalize banks and major industries.
B. state governments should take steps to overturn Jim Crow laws and to stop lynching incidents.
C. higher tariffs should be implemented to protect U.S. businesses and preserve jobs for Americans.
D. the role of the government should be expanded to address social and economic problems.
E. women should honor the middle-class ideals of the "cult of domesticity."

88. Which of the following is true of the 1935 Works Progress Administration?

A. It was struck down by the Supreme Court on the grounds that it gave legislative power to the executive branch.
B. It oversaw the building of massive hydroelectric plants along the Tennessee River, which brought electricity to many parts of the rural South.
C. It established legal protections for workers organizing unions and listed unfair labor practices that employers could not use.
D. It rapidly created jobs in fields as varied as airport construction and mural painting.
E. It provided emergency assistance to banks, railroad companies, life insurance companies, and other large businesses.

89. A fundamental cause of the urban riots that broke out in many cities during the Lyndon Johnson administration was

A. the rising expectations of African Americans for an improved quality of life.
B. despair of the poor and minorities over the draft for Vietnam.
C. frustration of African Americans over the slow pace of change in the South regarding segregation.
D. anger over the inability of African Americans in the North to vote.
E. a growing feeling among African Americans that affirmative action would never be implemented.

90. All of the following are challenges being faced by the United States in the 21st century EXCEPT

A. the danger to the Social Security system because of the graying of America.
B. the search for a cure for AIDS.
C. the existence of de jure segregation in the South.
D. the high costs of health care.
E. the lack of sufficient energy resources.