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1. The Aztec built their capital city Tenochtitlán on an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco primarily because the site
A. was ideally located for trade purposesB. provided protection from outside attackersC. fulfilled a prophecy about where they should settleD. was rich with natural deposits of gold and other mineralsE. was sacred to the people conquered by the Aztec
2. Early civilizations in Mesopotamia and Egypt were MOST similar in that they both
A. developed a code of retaliatory punishmentB. viewed women as socially equal to menC. developed a government of separate city-statesD. were invaded and occupied by the HyksosE. depended on the annual flooding of a river for survival
3. Which of these nations was the first to establish a trading presence in Asia by finding a sea route to India?
A. SpainB. EnglandC. FranceD. PortugalE. Italy
4. Claudius Ptolemy's geocentric theory of astronomy was not disproved until the sixteenth century, when the heliocentric theory was introduced by
A. AristotleB. CopernicusC. GalileoD. KeplerE. Brahe
5. Which of these statements MOST accurately describes the Bantu people of sub-Saharan Africa?
A. They initially organized into a stateless society composed of numerous villages.B. They developed a class system that divided people along the lines of social importance.C. They relied on a trans-Saharan gold and salt trade for economic and physical survival.D. They practiced a monotheistic religion similar to that of the Hebrews.E. They experienced violent clashes with the Muslim population in Africa.
6. The Treaty of Versailles contained all of the following provisions EXCEPT a
A. demand that Germany cede the territory of Alsace-Lorraine to FranceB. condition that placed permanent restrictions on the size of the Germany armyC. clause that required Germany to be held solely responsible for starting the warD. stipulation that forced Germany to pay for the right to retain its African coloniesE. requirement that prevented Germany from manufacturing or importing weapons
7. Respect for elders and ancestors, emphasis on effective government, and the belief that order and harmony can exist only if leaders cooperate with the most highly educated are all major philosophical tenets of
A. DaoismB. ConfucianismC. ShintoismD. BuddhismE. Legalism
8. The departure of Alexander the Great and his forces from India in 325 BCE led directly to the
A. rise of the Mauryan EmpireB. decline of Indian BuddhismC. reemergence of HinduismD. formation of the Gupta EmpireE. decentralization of Indian government
9. Which twentieth-century school of art produced works that were primarily whimsical in tone and devoid of any single specific meaning?
A. SurrealismB. DadaismC. ExpressionismD. FunctionalismE. Cubism
10. Which of these was primarily responsible for the tensions between China and Great Britain that led to the Anglo-Chinese War in 1839?
A. Chinese desire for independent self-ruleB. British importation of opium into ChinaC. Westernization of Chinese societyD. Territorial control over Hong KongE. Spread of communist influence
11. "The heart of the idea of the social contract may be stated simply: Each of us places his person and authority under the supreme direction of the general will, and the group receives each individual as an indivisible part of the whole."
Which of these would be LEAST likely to agree with the statement above?
A. John LockeB. VoltaireC. Thomas HobbesD. MontesquieuE. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
12. The Crusades had all of the following effects on Europe EXCEPT a/an
A. increase in the power of European monarchsB. elevation in the social status of womenC. emergence of a middle class in societyD. decline of trade between Europe and the EastE. increase in the political strength of the church
13. Japan and the countries of Western Europe were most similar around the thirteenth century in that both
A. established strong centralized governmentsB. experienced a series of civil warsC. developed intricate feudal systemsD. advanced the social status of womenE. endured invasion by Mongol forces
The stone carving pictured is a type of calendar created by which of these civilizations?
A. MauryanB. PhoenicianC. HarappānD. AztecE. Zhou
15. The influence of Minoan culture on Mycenaean culture was MOST evident in the Mycenaean
A. written languageB. interest in metallurgyC. system of tradeD. social class structureE. religious practices
16. In 1975, the Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, attempted to establish communist rule in which country?
A. ThailandB. CambodiaC. LaosD. MalaysiaE. Burma
17. The Balfour Declaration, issued by Britain in 1917, clarified England's position on the
A. Indian movement for independence from British ruleB. discriminatory South African policy of apartheidC. establishment of a Jewish state in PalestineD. formation of the Soviet Union under LeninE. proposed terms of German surrender in World War I
18. In 1908, facing international criticism for his harsh treatment of the Congolese in the Congo Free State, King Leopold II was forced to
A. agree to Congolese independence and abdicateB. relinquish his control and pay reparationsC. surrender his authority in the Congo to British forcesD. cede control of the Congo Free State to the Belgian governmentE. adopt humanitarian policies that ended hostilities
19. The Upanishads contain the core philosophy and central teachings of which world religion?
A. BuddhismB. HinduismC. JainismD. ShintoismE. Zoroastrianism
20. Which of the following was a significant change instituted during the reign of the 'Abbāsid Empire?
A. Non-Arab Muslims were allowed to hold civil and military office.B. The Islamic capital was moved from Mecca to Damascus.C. A hereditary method of succession was put in place.D. Islam was divided into the major sects of Sunni and Shia.E. The Byzantine capital of Constantinople was conquered.
21. Early human cultures in the Paleolithic Age were characterized by all of these EXCEPT the
A. development of languageB. prevalence of hunter-gatherersC. emergence of agricultureD. appearance of artworkE. practice of funereal rituals
22. The Ottoman policy of devsirme primarily served to
A. cement governmental controlB. increase military manpowerC. maintain religious freedomD. improve agricultural productivityE. ensure economic stability
23. Which of these was NOT one of the global effects of the Industrial Revolution?
A. Decline in the colonization of foreign territories by industrial powersB. Widening of the divide between industrialized and non-industrialized nationsC. Lessening of isolation between distant world culturesD. Increase in Europe's economic powerE. Strengthening of the political influence of the middle class
24. Who led the South American struggle for independence from Spain?
A. Benito JuárezB. Porfirio DíazC. Emiliano ZapataD. Simón BolívarE. Miguel Hidalgo
What was the purpose of this late-eighteenth-century French cartoon?
A. To criticize the insolence of the lower classB. To illustrate the size imbalances of the three estatesC. To encourage the reversal of the French class systemD. To decry the inadequacy of the French aristocracyE. To demonstrate the strength of the Third Estate
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