SAT Essay Prompt August 2018

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As you read the passage below, consider how Scott Steen uses:

- evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims.

- reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence.

- stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed.

Adapted from Scott Steen, "Are Urban Trees Worth It?" by Huffington post. Originally published Feb 19, 2013.

1. Some people don't love trees as much as they used to. After the severe storms we have had this year, including Hurricane Sandy, city trees can seem like a dangerous liability. Are urban trees worth the risk they pose to houses, cars and people when a violent storm comes through´╝č

2. Urban environments are tough on trees. Street trees are often boxed in without enough room for healthy roots or they don't have a sufficient water supply to sustain them. Branches on street trees can be broken by buses or trucks that travel or park too close, or they can be damaged by overly aggressive pruning. The damage often goes unreported, and the trees weaken. High winds can bring those branches — or the trunk itself — down on cars, houses or power lines.

3. But there is another side to it, too. Trees are green infrastructure. Unlike gray infrastructure — concrete and metal sewers, pipes, bridges, sidewalks — trees are an investment that increases in value throughout their lifetime, which can last a lot longer than concrete.

4. In Baltimore, Md., it's estimated that a single tree provides $57,000 in economic and environmental benefits over its lifetime. In a single year, Baltimore's canopy provides $3.3 million in energy savings.

5. Portland, Ore., is planting 83,000 trees as part of its five-year, $55 million Grey to Green program, to help solve its sewage and stormwater run-off problems.

6. In Austin, Texas, it's estimated that the city's trees have the potential to store up to 100,000 tons of CO2 per year.

7. The state of Indiana's street trees provide approximately $79 million annually in environmental and economic benefits. In the capital, Indianapolis, this equals $6.6 million in benefits just from street trees alone.

8. The list of other benefits trees in cities provide is long — from removing CO2 from the air, cleaning water and providing habitat for wildlife. But in urban environments, the benefits to people individually and society as a whole extend to social, physical and economic well-being.

9. People are happier and healthier in cities with more trees. Greener urban areas are connected to healthier and more social interactions between adults and children, as well as lower levels of graffiti, property crimes and violent crimes. According to one major study, public housing buildings surrounded by trees had 52 percent fewer total crimes, 48 percent fewer property crimes and 56 percent fewer violent crimes than buildings with few trees. Tall, dense trees with soft ground surfaces can reduce city noise by 50 percent or more.

10. Cities trees have also been shown to have significant health benefits. Research on more than 3,000 inner-city children in the United States showed that those who could easily reach a greenspace had less stress and a lower body mass. Among children living in neighborhoods with street trees, there is a lower prevalence of early childhood asthma.

11. But just as our urban trees are working for us, we need to work for them. As trees in urban forests get larger and provide greater benefits, like any infrastructure, they also get older and may require greater care to keep both them and us safe. Cities must provide adequate funding, crews and staff to keep our trees healthy. But in terms of the services they provide to the city, they are one of the few infrastructure investments that also grows in value.

12. Eighty percent of the U.S. population lives in urban areas. Over the next 50 years, the population in cities is projected to increase substantially. Urban forests will become even more critical to ensure healthy and livable communities.

13. With extreme weather occurring with greater frequency, city governments must start investing in urban forests now to mitigate problems in the future. This investment includes long-term, consistent maintenance plans; funding to support jobs for maintenance crews and specialists to monitor and care for trees; and strong ordinances and codes to ensure that planners and developers incorporate trees and greenspace. If we care for our cities' trees, they will give back to us tenfold. It's an important investment in our future. Are they worth the risk? Well, we can't live without them.

Write an essay in which you explain how Scott Steen builds an argument to persuade his audience that Americans need to work fewer hours. In your essay, analyze how Scott Steen uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage.

Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Scott Steen claims, but rather explain how Scott Steen builds an argument to persuade his audience.

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