April 2019 SAT Essay Sample: "US Public Libraries: We Lose Them at Our Peril"

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April 2019 SAT Essay Sample: "US Public Libraries: We Lose Them at Our Peril"

The U.S. intends to decrease public funds on libraries and even close them as a whole. With regard to their periphery of the governmental budgets, the author, Marilyn Johnson, manages to reiterate the important role librarians are acting and thereby advocate keeping libraries open. In order to justify "an essential service" visitors would enjoy in libraries, he employs factual evidence, frames the structure based on contrast and deftly selects emotion-charged words and figures of speech.

Mr. Johnson enjoys a good participation in following libraries in terms of his proximity to this field.He starts off a widespread issue that "cuts and close calls are happening across the country." Specifically, several typical libraries, such as the largest circulating library, Los Angeles libraries and the library in Siskiyou County, suffer from decreasing budget or gradual layoff, and are even on the verge of closing. By enumerating these hard facts, the author responds to "an interesting experiment"—governments have decided to leave public libraries so adolescent, and he exposes his deep concerns about their fates. Meanwhile, his solicitude for this entity escorts readers to the first-hand experiences where Mr. Johnson recollects what he witnessed about "an essential service". He found"families did research, attended computer classes and read the newspapers."Furthermore, self-employed staff gave visitors "access to the computers and a warm and affordable place to work." And librarians served as interpreters and guides to help the disadvantaged. Such personal experiences signal both the author's close contact with libraries and his recognition of librarians' service. More importantly, such retelling validates Mr. Johnson's positive attitude towards libraries and likely arouses readers' empathy, particularly those who are ignorant of the essential service.

One of the most crucial components of Mr. Johnson's success in delivery is the logical structure of his discourse. He fills the framework with contrast, so that readers are able to realize why libraries and their staff are an integral part in our lives. First,the writer compares public officials' attitudes towards libraries with those from ordinary patrons. On the one hand, librarians' work is "invisible" to those in power and the latter does not think of such service as "core". On the other hand, the author undermines this claim by showing different services readers have received. Amid the situations that "jobs have expanded with the demand for computers and training" and "so many other government services are being cut", librarians have been qualified to help the disadvantaged with application for benefits and with access to social services. It is crystal-clear that public officials underestimate librarians' contributions while visitors will describe their work as "an essential service." Although this balanced contrast displays the contradictory viewpoints, readers are prone to wonder whether librarians' work is invisible and those visitors, after benefiting from services, would believe libraries necessary and meaningful. Second, the different consequences in particular communities are revealed so as to defend the indispensable position libraries have owned. Some communities do not give priority to public libraries; instead, they cut funds on libraries and even close them. However, this action is about to lose competitive advantage, unless those "who own computers, or have high-speed Internet service and on-call technical assistance" and those "who reduce hits on a Google search and can buy any book or article or film" are so fortunate that they "escape the immediate consequences of these cuts." In contrast, some communities still enjoy competitive advantage, as they keep libraries open and provide visitors with "an essential service". Despite several exceptions that the closure of public libraries has nothing to do with residents' profits, these cases are temporary and are dwarfed by the competitive advantage. Therefore, readers will perceive the sharp disparity on whether school or public libraries should be invested or not and realize this investment is still effective.

Although his use of logos and ethos makes people comprehend the issue on an intellectual level, the emotional nature of this controversial subject produces a very natural pathos. For one thing, Mr. Johnson takes the advantage of diction to appreciate librarians' commitment to their jobs. He describes those staff as "idealists" who take "accurate information" and "intellectual riches" seriously and believe these elements can lead to a better world. He tries to lift their work up to the future of the world and readers tend to link their interests with librarians' service which is characterized by nonprofit and privacy, for "they represent the best civic value." Additionally, he employs "conscientious", "economical" and "service-oriented"to modify and define librarians' qualifications. Not only do these commendatory words reshape the positive images of librarians, but also convey the author's respect and appreciation for their service. Additionally, the use of figurative languages makes the language concise and dramatic. For example, he mentions that "the next Abraham Lincoln could be sitting in library." The allusion to historic figure briefly clarifies the relation between libraries and "to save the country", because readers, who expose themselves to knowledge, can play the role as Abraham Lincoln. Here the author continues to generalize libraries' great values by tracing back to history. Before ending his argument, Mr.Johnson compares libraries to "levelers of privilege", "avenues of reinvention"and "engines of democracy", all of which signify their overwhelming effects on the society.

Through the effective use of rhetorical tools and the mindful arrangement of this essay, the author persuades the audience that the main idea.?

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