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The following passage is adapted from an open letter to the United Nations, written by Danish physicist and Nobel Prize winner Niels Bohr. Bohr completed important work on atomic structure long before World War II. After fleeing Denmark to escape the Nazis, he eventually went to work with the British as an adviser to U.S. scientists developing the first atomic bomb. The atomic bomb was then used to bring an end to World War II.
I address myself to the organization, foundedfor the purpose to further co-operation betweennations.…The fear of being left behind was a strong05incentive in various countries to explore, in secrecy,the possibilities of using such energy sources formilitary purposes. The joint American-Britishproject remained unknown to me until, after myescape from occupied Denmark in the autumn of101943, I came to England at the invitation of theBritish government. At that time I was taken intoconfidence about the great enterprise which hadalready then reached an advanced stage.Everyone associated with the atomic energy15project was, of course, conscious of the seriousproblems which would confront humanity once theenterprise was accomplished.…It certainly surpasses the imagination of anyoneto survey the consequences of the project in years20to come, where in the long run the enormous ener-gy sources which will be available may be expectedto revolutionize industry and transport. The factof immediate preponderance is, however, that aweapon of an unparalleled power is being created25which will completely change all future conditionsof warfare.This situation raises a number of problemswhich call for most urgent attention. Unless,indeed, some agreement about the control of the30use of the new active materials can be obtained indue time, any temporary advantage, however great,may be outweighed by a perpetual menace tohuman security.When the war ended and the great menaces of35oppression to so many peoples had disappeared,an immense relief was felt all over the world.Nevertheless, the political situation was fraughtwith ominous forebodings. Divergences in outlookbetween the victorious nations inevitably aggravat-40ed controversial matters arising in connection withpeace settlements. Contrary to the hopes for futurefruitful co-operation, expressed from all sides andembodied in the Charter of the United Nations, thelack of mutual confidence soon became evident.45The creation of new barriers, restricting the freeflow of information between countries, furtherincreased distrust and anxiety.…The very fact that knowledge is in itself thebasis for civilization points directly to openness as50the way to overcome the present crisis. Whateverjudicial and administrative international authori-ties may eventually have to be created in order tostabilize world affairs, it must be realized that fullmutual openness, only, can effectively promote55confidence and guarantee common security.Any widening of the borders of our knowledgeimposes an increased responsibility on individualsand nations through the possibilities it gives forshaping the conditions of human life. The forceful60admonition in this respect which we have receivedin our time cannot be left unheeded and shouldhardly fail in resulting in common understandingof the seriousness of the challenge with which ourwhole civilization is faced. It is just on this back-65ground that quite unique opportunities exist to-dayfor furthering co-operation between nations on theprogress of human culture in all its aspects.
1. What is the most likely intended purpose of this letter?
2. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
3. As used in line 23, "preponderance" most nearly means
4. The passage most clearly suggests that Bohr's work before World War II
5. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
6. As used in line 38, "divergences" most nearly means
7. What does Bohr claim happened after World War II "contrary to the hopes for fruitful cooperation" (lines 41-42)?
8. The reference to knowledge in lines 48-50 ("The very fact … present crisis") primarily serves to
9. The author's position in the concluding paragraphs suggests that he would most likely support international
10. Lines 59-64 ("The forceful admonition … is faced") primarily serves to
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