New SAT Reading Practice Test 45: Franklin Delano Roosevelt Speech

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Franklin Delano Roosevelt Speech

This passage is adapted from a speech delivered by President Franklin Roosevelt on January 6, 1941, to the United States Congress. In the passage, Roosevelt reveals his intention to preserve and spread American ideals around the world.

The Nation takes great satisfaction and much
strength from the things which have been done to
make its people conscious of their individual stake
in the preservation of democratic life in America.
05Those things have toughened the fibre of our people,
have renewed their faith and strengthened their de-
votion to the institutions we make ready to protect.
Certainly this is no time for any of us to stop
thinking about the social and economic problems
10which are the root cause of the social revolution
which is today a supreme factor in the world.
For there is nothing mysterious about the founda-
tions of a healthy and strong democracy. The basic
things expected by our people of their political and
15economic systems are simple. They are:
•Equality of opportunity for youth and for others.
•Jobs for those who can work.
•Security for those who need it.
•The ending of special privilege for the few.
20•The preservation of civil liberties for all.
•The enjoyment of the fruits of scientific progress
in a wider and constantly rising standard of living.
These are the simple, basic things that must never
be lost sight of in the turmoil and unbelievable com-
25plexity of our modern world. The inner and abid-
ing strength of our economic and political systems
is dependent upon the degree to which they fulfill
these expectations.
Many subjects connected with our social econo-
30my call for immediate improvement.
As examples:
•We should bring more citizens under the coverage
of old-age pensions and unemployment insurance.
•We should widen the opportunities for adequate
35medical care.
•We should plan a better system by which persons
deserving or needing gainful employment may
obtain it.
I have called for personal sacrifice. I am as-
40sured of the willingness of almost all Americans to
respond to that call.
A part of the sacrifice means the payment of
more money in taxes. In my Budget Message I shall
recommend that a greater portion of this great de-
45fense program be paid for from taxation than we are
paying today. No person should try, or be allowed, to
get rich out of this program; and the principle of tax
payments in accordance with ability to pay should be
constantly before our eyes to guide our legislation.
50If the Congress maintains these principles, the
voters, putting patriotism ahead of pocketbooks, will
give you their applause.
In the future days, which we seek to make secure,
we look forward to a world founded upon four
55essential human freedoms.
The first is freedom of speech and expression—
everywhere in the world.
The second is freedom of every person to worship
God in his own way—everywhere in the world.
60The third is freedom from want—which,
translated into world terms, means economic
understandings which will secure to every nation
a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants—every-
where in the world.
65The fourth is freedom from fear—which,
translated into world terms, means a world-wide
reduction of armaments to such a point and in such
a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a posi-
tion to commit an act of physical aggression against
70any neighbor—anywhere in the world.
That is no vision of a distant millennium. It is
a definite basis for a kind of world attainable in
our own time and generation. That kind of world
is the very antithesis of the so-called new order of
75tyranny which the dictators seek to create with the
crash of a bomb.
To that new order we oppose the greater
conception—the moral order. A good society is
able to face schemes of world domination and
80foreign revolutions alike without fear.
Since the beginning of our American history,
we have been engaged in change—in a perpetual
peaceful revolution—a revolution which goes
on steadily, quietly adjusting itself to changing
85conditions—without the concentration camp or the
quick-lime in the ditch. The world order which we
seek is the cooperation of free countries, working
together in a friendly, civilized society.
This nation has placed its destiny in the hands
90and heads and hearts of its millions of free men and
women; and its faith in freedom under the guid-
ance of God. Freedom means the supremacy of hu-
man rights everywhere. Our support goes to those
who struggle to gain those rights or keep them.
95Our strength is our unity of purpose. To that high
concept there can be no end save victory.

1. Which phrase from the passage most clearly reflects President Roosevelt's purpose in making this speech?

  • A. Lines 2-4 ("to make…democratic life")
  • B. Lines 8-11 ("to stop thinking…the world")
  • C. Lines 54-55 ("[to] look forward to…freedoms")
  • D. Lines 79-80 ("to face…without fear")

2. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

  • A. Lines 13-15 ("The basic things…are simple")
  • B. Lines 29-30 ("Many subjects…improvement")
  • C. Lines 50-52 ("If the Congress…applause")
  • D. Lines 53-55 ("In the future days…freedoms")

3. As used in line 39, "sacrifice" most nearly means

  • A. religious offerings to a deity.
  • B. service in the military.
  • C. losses of limbs in battle.
  • D. surrender of interests to a greater good.

4. The passage most strongly suggests a relationship between which of the following phenomena?

  • A. Protection of human rights abroad and military service
  • B. Spread of freedom abroad and defense of democracy at home
  • C. Defeat of tyrants abroad and establishment of democratic government at home
  • D. Investment in global democracies abroad and strengthening of patriotism at home

5. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

  • A. Lines 23-28 ("These are…expectations")
  • B. Lines 50-52 ("If the Congress…applause")
  • C. Lines 71-76 ("That is no…of a bomb")
  • D. Lines 92-95 ("Freedom means…unity of purpose")

6. In line 51, "pocketbooks" most nearly refers to

  • A. local, state, and national taxes.
  • B. war debt accumulated by the nation.
  • C. citizens' individual monetary interests.
  • D. Americans' personal investment in the defense industry.

7. In lines 71-73 ("That is no…generation"), President Roosevelt is most likely responding to what implicit counterclaim to his own argument?

  • A. The spread of global democracy is idealistic and unrealistic.
  • B. The defeat of tyrannical dictators in Europe is implausible.
  • C. The commitment of the American people to the war effort is limited.
  • D. The resources of the United States are insufficient to wage war abroad.

8. Which choice offers evidence that the spread of global democracy is achievable?

  • A. Lines 46-47 ("No person…this program")
  • B. Lines 54-55 ("we look forward…human freedoms")
  • C. Lines 81-82 ("Since the beginning…in change")
  • D. Line 95 ("Our strength…purpose")

9. In lines 60-64 ("The third is…world"), President Roosevelt sets a precedent by which he would most likely support which of the following policies?

  • A. Military defense of political borders
  • B. Investment in overseas business ventures
  • C. Aid to nations struggling due to conflict and other causes
  • D. Reduction of domestic services to spur job growth

10. The author refers to "the so-called new order of tyranny" primarily to

  • A. connect the global conflict for human rights to citizens on a personal level.
  • B. demonstrate the power of the global opposition to the United States.
  • C. offer an alternative vision of the world without democracy.
  • D. provide examples of the political and social revolutions underway.