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Coffee is a pillar of the world economy,generating both jobs and profits. The plant producedrevenue to the tune of $15.4 billion in 2013 alone.The coffee industry is also one of the world's largest05employers, supporting 26 million employees.Because of the global importance of coffee, scientistsat the University at Buffalo and their internationalcolleagues were compelled to sequence the genomeof the most popular coffee plant. In the genome lies10the secrets of the bold flavor that people around theworld have come to enjoy daily, as well as the caf-feine kick that comes along with it. This new geneticinformation can be used to expand the market bycreating new types of coffee varieties. The results of15the study can also safeguard the existing industry.Scientists can now modify the genetic material ofthe coffee plant. Heartier strains of popular cof-fee types can be created so that they are resistant todrought, disease, and bugs.20Researchers began their work by sequencingthe genome of the type of coffee that makes up30 percent of all coffee production. The conclu-sions drawn from this study will help save moneyand resources during the coffee production process.25Researchers were able to isolate the genetic informa-tion of the enzymes in the coffee plant that producecaffeine. With this information, it may be possibleto reduce or eliminate caffeine from coffee. Thiswould remove a costly step in the current process30of extracting caffeine from the coffee beans, whileexpanding the coffee market to people who avoidcaffeine for health reasons, such as high blood pres-sure or pregnancy. The same research team plansto sequence the genome of other types of coffee in35the future. It is their hope that the information willbenefit the coffee producer, consumer, and also theenvironment.
The Gibbon Genome Sequencing Consortium hassuccessfully sequenced the genome of the Northern40white-cheeked gibbon. Both gibbons and humanshave DNA that changes during the course of theirlifetime. Some DNA changes in humans are theresult of mutations, which cause cancer and otherdiseases. The changes in gibbons' DNA have resulted45in many changes to the species over a very shortperiod of time. Although gibbons are close relativesto humans, their DNA changes do not cause disease.Understanding the pattern of the gibbon genomemight turn out to be very important to humans. If50these changes in DNA can be understood, scientistsmay be able to use the information to better under-stand human disease.Cancer and other genetic diseases are caused byfaulty gene regulation. Scientists have sought to under-55stand human biology through the lens of gibbon DNAstructures for some time. Until now, there has simplybeen too much information to analyze. The endless re-arrangements made it difficult to align gibbon DNA tothat of humans, but it has finally been accomplished.60Scientists discovered a piece of DNA that is uniqueto the gibbon species. Gibbons have a specific repeatelement, or a piece of DNA that copies itself multi-ple times throughout the genome. Repeat elements,in both gibbons and humans, are related to the65maintenance of genetic structures. Scientists hopeto be able to answer the question "Why can gibbonDNA rearrange itself without causing diseases—unlike humans' DNA?" If this complicated biologicalquestion can be solved, scientists may be able to work70backward in order to help stop cancer, heart failure,and other human disease related to genetic repeats.
1. Which of the following best describes the central idea of Passage 1?
2. The author of Passage 2 would most likely agree that
3. Passage 1 most strongly suggests that
4. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
5. Passage 2 most strongly suggests which of the following?
6. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
7. Which of the following best summarizes a shared purpose of the two authors?
8. As used in line 8, "compelled" most nearly means
9. As used in line 65, "maintenance" most nearly means
10. Which point is the author of Passage 1 trying to make by using the phrase "a pillar of the world economy" in line 1 to refer to the coffee industry?
11. Which of the following can reasonably be inferred based on the information in both passages?
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