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A protein is a large, complex macromoleculecomposed of one or more long chainsof amino acids. Proteins are 15–25% nitrogenand an equal amount of oxygen, and are05present in and vital to every living cell. Theyare essential for the structure, function, andregulation of the body's tissues and organs.As a matter of fact, proteins hold together,protect, and provide structure to the body of10a multi-celled organism. Furthermore, theyare responsible for catalyzing and regulatingthe body chemistry. Yet, before FrederickSanger—one of only two people to everreceive two Nobel Prizes in the same category—15little was known about proteins andthe sequence of their amino acid chains.Frederick Sanger graduated with a doctoratein biochemistry from St. John's Collegein 1943, where he had spent three years20researching the metabolism of the aminoacid lysine. Yet, it wasn't until his work withinsulin that Sanger differentiated himselfin the field of chemistry. His first trueaccomplishment occurred when he successfully25determined the complete amino acidsequence of the two polypeptide chains ofbovine insulin A and B in the early 1950s. Hisresearch proved that proteins have a definedchemical composition, and he ultimately30concluded that every protein had a uniquesequence. In 1958, Sanger was awarded theNobel Prize in Chemistry for showing howamino acids link together to form insulin,and, therefore, providing the tools for scientists35to analyze any protein in the body. Muchlater, after his retirement, he would describehimself as "just a chap who messed about ina lab."Four years later, Sanger took a position as40the head of the Protein Chemistry Divisionon the Medical Research Council, where hebegan to work on the sequencing of ribonucleicacid. He developed methods forseparating ribonucleotide fragments generated45with specific nucleases which triggeredthe discovery of formylmethionine tRNA,responsible for initiating protein synthesisin bacteria. Yet his earlier work with insulinhelped him to form and deliberate on50ideas of how DNA codes for proteins. Whenhe turned to sequencing DNA—the blueprint-like molecule that carries the geneticinstructions for all living organisms—Sangercollaborated with Alan Coulson to publish55the "Plus and Minus Technique," a sequencingprocedure he developed to determine theorder of the chemical bases adenine, thymine,guanine, and cytosine which spell outthe genetic code for all living things.60When he devised a more efficient methodfor reading the molecular letters that makeup the genetic code in 1977, he christened itthe "Sanger Method." The "Sanger Method"allows long stretches of DNA to be rapidly65and accurately sequenced, which earned himhis second Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1980.He employed his invention to decipher thesixteen thousand letters of mitochondria.More significantly, this method eventually70allowed scientists to decode the three billionletters of the human genetic code, givingscience the ability to distinguish betweennormal and abnormal genes. In the sameway, Sanger's work directly contributed to75the development of biotechnology drugs likehuman growth hormone.In 1986, the celebrated chemist acceptedan Order of Merit. Shortly after, he helpedopen the Sanger Institute outside of80Cambridge, which is now one of the world'slargest genomic research centers. Sanger diedin November 2013; his obituary documentedhis supreme modesty in an autobiographicalaccount of himself as "academically not85brilliant." At any rate, Sanger's researchprompted the decoding of the humangenome.
Nobel Prize Winners as of 2013
1. The organization of the passage is
2. As used in line 5, the word "vital" most closely means
3. According to the passage, Sanger's attitude toward his own accomplishments could best be described as
4. Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
5. Which option could best be cited as evidence in support of the claim that Sanger was confident in the significance of his research?
6. Sanger's quote in lines 37-38 ("just . . . lab") has a tone best described as
7. As used in line 67, the word "employed" most closely means
8. The primary purpose of lines 69-76 ("More . . . hormone") is to
9. It is most likely that one of the "other" countries that has the most Nobel Prize winners has a percentage of the total number of prize winners in what range?
10. What is the probability that a randomly selected Nobel Prize winner from the set of winners from Germany and the United States will be from Germany?
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