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Below is an excerpt adapted from Booker T. Washington's notable "Atlanta Exposition Speech" in 1895. The second is part of a 1903 response, titled "Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others," by W.E.B. DuBois. (As historical texts, these use antiquated language.)
Our greatest danger is, that in the greatleap from slavery to freedom we may overlookthe fact that the masses of us are to liveby the productions of our hands, and fail to05keep in mind that we shall prosper in proportionas we learn to dignify and glorify commonlabor and put brains and skill into thecommon occupations of life… No race canprosper till it learns that there is as much dignity10in tilling a field as in writing a poem. It isat the bottom of life we must begin and notthe top. Nor should we permit our grievancesto overshadow our opportunities.To those of the white race who look to15the incoming of those of foreign birth andstrange tongue and habits for the prosperityof the South, were I permitted, I would repeatwhat I say to my own race. "Cast down yourbucket where you are." Cast it down among20the 8,000,000 Negroes whose habits youknow, whose loyalty and love you have testedin days when to have proved treacherous[meant] the ruin of your firesides.[…]25While doing this you can be sure in thefuture, as you have been in the past, thatyou and your families will be surrounded bythe most patient, faithful, law-abiding andunresentful people that the world has seen.30As we have proven our loyalty to you in thepast, in nursing your children, watching bythe sick bed of your mothers and fathers, andoften following them with tear dimmed eyesto their graves, so in the future in our humble35way, we shall stand by you with a devotionthat no foreigner can approach, ready tolay down our lives, if need be, in defense ofyours, interlacing our industrial, commercial,civil and religious life with yours in a way that40shall make the interests of both races one. Inall things that are purely social we can be asseparate as the fingers, yet one as the hand inall things essential to mutual progress.
… Booker T. Washington arose as essentially45the leader not of one race but oftwo—a compromiser between the South, theNorth, and the Negro. Naturally the Negroesresented, at first bitterly, signs of compromisewhich surrendered their civil and political50rights, even though this was to be exchangedfor larger chances of economic development.The rich and dominating North, however,was not only weary of the race problem, butwas investing largely in Southern enterprises,55and welcomed any method of peacefulcooperation. Thus, by national opinion, theNegroes began to recognize Mr. Washington'sleadership; and the voice of criticism washushed.60Mr. Washington represents in Negrothought the old attitude of adjustment andsubmission, but adjustment at such a peculiartime as to make his programme unique.This is an age of unusual economic development,65and Mr. Washington's programmenaturally takes an economic cast, becoming agospel of work and money to such an extentas apparently almost completely to overshadowthe higher aims of life. Moreover, this70is an age when the more advanced races arecoming in closer contact with the less developedraces, and the race-feeling is thereforeintensified; and Mr. Washington's programmepractically accepts the alleged inferiority75of the Negro races. Again, in our own land,the reaction from the sentiment of war timehas given impetus to race prejudice againstNegroes, and Mr. Washington withdrawsmany of the high demands of Negroes as80men and American citizens. In other periodsof intensified prejudice all the Negro'stendency to self-assertion has been calledforth; at this period a policy of submission isadvocated.85[…]Mr. Washington distinctly asks that blackpeople give up, at least for the present, threethings—First, political power, Second, insistenceon civil rights, Third, higher education90of Negro youth—and concentrate all theirenergies on industrial education, the accumulationof wealth, and the conciliation ofthe South.
1. As used in line 8, the word "common" most closely means
2. Lines 14-17 most precisely refer to
3. The general purpose of the paragraph in lines 25-43 is to argue in favor of
4. Lines 52-56 most strongly imply that the North was most concerned with
5. Passage 2 most strongly suggests that Washington encourages African-Americans to
6. Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
7. As used in line 66, the word "cast" most closely means
8. Which sentence best summarizes the relationship between the passages?
9. Based on the passages, what Washington would most likely define as African-American "compromise," Dubois would most likely define as
10. Which option gives the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
11. Which selection from Passage 1 gives the most direct response to the last paragraph of Passage 2 (lines 86-93)?
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