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Success in Montreal
The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer is an international treaty that was created to ensure that steps would be taken to reverse damage to Earth's ozone 1 layer and preventing future damage. 2 It was signed in 1987. This document created restrictions on chemicals that were known to be dangerous to the protective barrier that the ozone layer offers Earth. Without the ozone layer, the sun's dangerous UV rays would alter our climate so drastically, life on land and in water would cease to exist.
A hole in Earth's ozone layer was discovered over Antarctica 3 as long as two years prior to the signing of the treaty. The discovery brought the human impact on the environment to the forefront 4 of international conversation, the massive hole was evidence that a global response was necessary and that large-scale action was needed. The Montreal Protocol became effective January 1, 1989, and nearly 100 gases deemed dangerous to the ozone layer have been phased out. As a result, 5 the size of the ozone hole decreased significantly during the 1990s.
Now that a substantial amount of time has passed since the treaty was put into place, the effects can begin to be 6 looked at. As a part of the treaty, the Montreal Protocol's Scientific Assessment Panel was created to gauge 7 their effect on the hole in the ozone layer.
The Panel has since reported the results every four years. The Panel predicts that the ozone layer will return to its former state of health by 2060-2075.8
While the treaty is already an obvious success, work continues to ensure that human strides in technology and industry do not reverse the healing process. The Montreal Protocol's Multilateral Fund was established to help developing countries transition away from the consumption and production of harmful chemicals. So far, over $3 billion has been invested by the Fund. The developing countries are referred to as "Article 5 countries."9
 The Montreal Protocol is a living document.  A current amendment proposition has been put forth by the United States, Mexico, and Canada jointly.  It aims to cut down on harmful gases that were put into use as an alternative to the gases specified in the original Montreal Protocol treaty.  It has been amended four times since its inception.  Combating the erosion of our ozone layer will take time and flexibility, but the research is clear: If humans stay conscious of what we emit into the atmosphere, we can not only stall the damage we have done in the past, but we can 10 change it.11
Adapted from Ozone Hole Watch, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
2. Which choice most effectively combines the sentences in the underlined portion?
5. Which choice completes the sentence with accurate data based on the graphic?
8. Which choice could be added to paragraph 3 to most effectively convey its central idea?
9. Which sentence in paragraph 4 provides the least support for the central idea of the paragraph?
11. For the sake of cohesion of this paragraph, sentence 4 should be placed
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