SAT Writing and Language Practice Test: Maria Montessori

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Maria Montessori

What is education? Is it a program of institutionally approved performances, or a collection of self-directed experiences? Such questions absorbed Maria Montessori throughout her life. Born in 1870 in 12 Chiaravalle Italy, Montessori showed a strong independent will even as a child. As a teenager, she told her parents that she wanted to study engineering, 13 a position that was widely thought unladylike. By the age of 20, she had changed her mind and decided to pursue an even less traditional path: medicine. Despite suffering ridicule and isolation, 14 Montessori's medical studies at the University of Rome were completed and she became one of the first female physicians in Italy.

Although Montessori's practice focused on psychiatry, her interests gravitated toward education. In 1900, she was appointed co-director of the Scuola Magistrale Ortofrenica, a training institute for special education teachers. Montessori believed that, in order for so-called "deficient" children to thrive, they needed respect and stimulation rather than 15 the regimentation they were receiving in institutions.

In 1907 Maria opened the Casa dei Bambini, or "Children's House," a daycare center for impoverished children in which she could test her theory that 16 children's minds each learn according to they're own schedule. She personalized a curriculum for each child rather than providing a standardized course of study. While learning important academic and life skills, many formerly aggressive and unmanageable children became more emotionally balanced and self-directed. Word of her success with the Casa dei Bambini soon began to 17 distribute internationally, and her methods for child-centered education became widely adopted across Europe.

18 In the 25 years after their founding, Montessori schools were regarded as a remedy to the educational problems associated with rapid urban population growth throughout Europe.

19 So as fascism began to proliferate in the 1930s throughout Spain, Italy, and Germany, child-centered education came to be seen as a threat to the power of the state. In 1933, the totalitarian regimes in Italy and Germany closed all Montessori schools and declared 20 them subversive and that they were undermining their power.

Even outside of Europe, 21 the response to Montessori's ideas were divided. Many eminent scholars, inventors, and politicians-among them Alexander Graham Bell, Helen Keller, Thomas Edison, Mahatma Gandhi, and Woodrow Wilson-greeted her ideas with enthusiasm. But her theories were challenged by William H. Kirkpatrick, a leading educational reformer and professor at Teachers College, Columbia University. His 1914 book, The Montessori System Examined, declared Montessori's psychological theories wildly out-of-date. 22

It was not until 1958 that a new generation of Montessorians revived and updated her methods in the United States. In 1958, the first American Montessori school, the Whitby School, was founded in Greenwich, Connecticut, where it thrives today.

12.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. Chiaraville, Italy. Montessori showed a strong independent will, even
  • C. Chiaraville, Italy, Montessori showed a strong, independent will, even
  • D. Chiaraville, Italy; Montessori showed a strong, independent will even

13.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. despite its reputation for being unladylike
  • C. although widely considered unladylike
  • D. which was unladylike in reputation

14.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. Montessori completed her medical studies at the University of Rome by becoming
  • C. Montessori's medical studies were completed, at the University of Rome, and thus she became
  • D. Montessori completed her medical studies at the University of Rome and became

15.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. receiving regimentation in institutions
  • C. the regimented institutions they were receiving
  • D. the regimentation of the institutions they were receiving

16.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. each child's mind learns according to its own schedule
  • C. childrens' minds learn according to its own schedule
  • D. children's minds each learn according to their own schedule

17.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. increase
  • C. spread
  • D. exhibit

18. Which choice provides the most effective introduction to this paragraph?

  • A. Montessori dedicated herself to travelling the world and preaching the benefits of child-centered education.
  • B. Montessori's first school enrolled 50 students from poor working families.
  • C. Montessori did not have a particularly nurturing relationship with her own son, Mario, who was raised by another family.
  • D. As the Montessori method was gaining a foothold, Europe was undergoing dramatic social and political change.

19.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. When
  • C. However, as
  • D. Furthermore, as

20.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. that they were subversive in undermining their power
  • C. them subversive in undermining power
  • D. them subversive

21.

  • A. NO CHANGE
  • B. the response to Montessori's ideas was
  • C. Montessori's ideas had a response that was
  • D. Montessori's ideas response was

22. At this point, the paragraph would benefit most from a discussion of

  • A. how Kirkpatrick's book was received among American educators
  • B. why totalitarian governments regarded Montessori's methods as a threat
  • C. those American educators whose influence was comparable to Montessori's
  • D. how other reform movements of the era contrasted with Montessori's