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1. Which situation describes an incidence of artificial selection acting upon a single population?
A. Weak prey animals successfully hunted by predatorsB. Excessive rains providing additional water resourcesC. Males choosing the healthiest females to reproduce withD. An early warm front resulting in premature plant bloomingE. Insecticides eliminating all crop pests except resistant individuals
2. The following change is an example of which type of mutation?
Original DNA sequence: ATGGA-AGC
New DNA sequence: ATTGACAGC
I. Point mutation
A. I onlyB. II onlyC. III onlyD. I and IIE. I and III
3. With a limited amount of chemical substrate, all of the following factors could directly affect an enzyme's activity EXCEPT
A. pH levelB. inhibitorsC. temperatureD. enzyme cofactorsE. enzyme concentration
4. The loop of Henle is a structure within the urinary tract responsible for reabsorbing water. Compared to a terrestrial species, how might this structure appear in a freshwater aquatic species?
A. AbsentB. LongerC. ShorterD. WitheredE. Thinner
5. The coyote, Canis latrans, belongs to each of the taxonomic groups in the answer choices below. Which group's members are most closely related to each other?
A. Order CarnivoraB. Class MammaliaC. Subfamily VertebrataD. Family CanidaeE. Phylum Chordata
6. Terrestrial snakes and aquatic eels have a similar elongated morphology. However, they are not closely related evolutionarily. Their resemblance is an example of
A. analogyB. homologyC. speciationD. divergent evolutionE. artificial selection
7. Edward's syndrome is the result of an additional 18th chromosome present in a fertilized embryo. Which of the following events could lead to the presence of this additional chromosome in a zygote?
A. Crossing over in meiosis IB. Nondisjunction in meiosis IIC. A deletion during meiosis IID. A deletion during meiosis IE. Replication error in meiosis II
8. The steps of protein synthesis and modification take place in several different locations throughout the cell. What is the proper order of these locations, from start to finish?
III. Golgi apparatus
IV. Endoplasmic reticulum
A. I, II, III, IVB. II, I, IV, IIIC. III, II, IV, ID. II, I, III, IVE. IV, III, II, I
9. A somatic cell of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) has 56 chromosomes. What number of chromosomes will an octopus gamete contain?
A. 14B. 28C. 56D. 112E. 168
10. A genetic mutation results in a DNA sequence that continues to synthesize the same protein, at the same rate as a nonmutated sequence. This mutation would be BEST classified as a
A. deletionB. insertionC. missense mutationD. nonsense mutationE. silent mutation
11. A unicellular prokaryote belongs to which kingdom?
A. AnimaliaB. EubacteriaC. FungiD. PlantaeE. Protista
12. Which of the following organisms has the highest evolutionary fitness?
A. A cheetah that catches the most preyB. A fox that successfully avoids predatorsC. A tortoise that has lived for over 100 yearsD. A wolf that recovers quickly from a woundE. A gorilla that reproduces several times
13. Flowering plants are divided into two subgroups, monocots and dicots. These groups differ significantly in all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
A. seed structureB. floral partsC. leaf venationD. stomata structureE. vascular organization
14. An organism produces many offspring each reproductive season, only a few of which survive.
The survivorship curve for this organism can BEST be described as
A. closely matching curve 1B. closely matching curve 2C. closely matching curve 3D. fitting between curves 1 and 2E. fitting between curves 2 and 3
15. An association between two organisms in which one benefits and neither is harmed is called
A. commensalismB. mutualismC. parasitismD. predationE. omnivory
16. Centrifugation is a laboratory technique used to separate materials by their relative masses. More massive substances will sink to the bottom of a test tube while those with less mass will float to the top. A cell culture is centrifuged. Which cellular organelle would be concentrated at the top of the centrifuged mixture?
A. NucleiB. Endoplasmic reticulumC. MitochondriaD. RibosomesE. Membrane-bound proteins
17. Which of the following shows the proper order of blood flow through the heart, entering from the vena cava?
A. Left atrium → left ventricle → right ventricle → right atriumB. Left ventricle → left atrium → right atrium → right ventricleC. Right atrium → right ventricle → left atrium → left ventricleD. Right ventricle → right atrium → left atrium → left ventricleE. Right ventricle → right atrium → left ventricle → left atrium
18. What would happen to a blood cell moved from an isotonic solution to a hypertonic solution?
A. The cell would swell.B. The cell would shrivel up.C. The cell would immediately lyse.D. The cell membrane would be reinforced.E. Nothing; the cell would be in equilibrium.
19. Triticale is a hybrid of wheat (Triticum turgidum) and rye (Secale cereale), bred to demonstrate the most desirable characteristics of both species. The resulting hybrid possesses four chromosome sets from the maternal wheat plant and two sets from the paternal rye plant. What is the ploidy of these hybrids?
A. Diploid (2n)B. Triploid (3n)C. Tetraploid (4n)D. Hexaploid (6n)E. Octoploid (8n)
20. A group of biologists wishes to isolate an antifreeze gene found in a cold-water species of fish and introduce it into the genome of a different organism. Which of the following techniques must they use?
A. CloningB. Artificial selectionC. Selective breedingD. Genetic engineeringE. Sexual recombination
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