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1. The phenomenon depicted in the diagram is known as
A. linkageB. independent assortmentC. crossing overD. nondisjunctionE. mutation
2. The graph shows the changes in free energy before, during, and after a biochemical reaction.
Which describes the effect of a catalytic enzyme on this reaction?
A. Energy decreases at point 1.B. Energy increases at point 1.C. Energy decreases at point 2.D. Energy increases at point 2.E. Energy decreases at point 3.
3. A cell that receives more than the normal number of chromosomes can be called all of the following EXCEPT
A. aneuploidB. gameticC. monosomicD. polyploidE. trisomatic
4. People with an A-positive blood type may safely donate blood to those with which blood type?
A. A negativeB. B positiveC. O negativeD. AB positiveE. AB negative
5. An allele that codes for all actin molecules to be synthesized in linear chains would result in
A. immovable musclesB. smooth muscle tissueC. normal sarcomere structureD. degeneration of muscle tissueE. muscle tendons that cannot attach
6. A horse has 64 chromosomes, while a zebra has 46. In rare cases, it is possible to cause these two species to hybridize, creating offspring that are
A. fertile, with 46 chromosomesB. fertile, with 55 chromosomesC. sterile, with 46 chromosomesD. sterile, with 55 chromosomesE. sterile, with 64 chromosomes
7. A genetic mutation that adds a nucleotide to a protein-coding sequence of DNA creates an early stop codon. How will this influence the resulting protein?
A. The primary structure of the protein will be unaffected.B. The secondary structure of the protein will be unchanged.C. The protein will not be translated at all.D. The protein will be complete but function abnormally.E. The protein will be synthesized normally up to the mutation.
8. What are the three structural components of a nucleotide?
A. A carboxyl, a sugar, and a phosphateB. A phosphate, an amino acid, and a carboxylC. An amino acid, a carboxyl, and a phosphateD. A sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous baseE. A nitrogenous base, an amino acid, and a sugar
9. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that integrates its own DNA into a host cell's genome using
A. DNA polymeraseB. helicaseC. primaseD. ligaseE. reverse transcriptase
10. How will the function of a neuron be affected if the potassium channels of the membrane remain open?
A. It will continue to function normally.B. It will function inconsistently.C. It will no longer function due to sodium leakage.D. It will continue to function but not transmit any impulses.E. It will no longer function due to an overly positive charge.
11. Which can affect the primary structure of a protein?
I. Genetic mutation
II. Increase in temperature
III. Decrease in pH
A. I onlyB. I and IIC. I and IIID. II and IIIE. I, II, and III
12. Which type of bond is broken by the helicase enzyme?
I. Covalent bonds
II. Hydrogen bonds
III. Ionic bonds
A. I onlyB. II onlyC. III onlyD. I and IIE. I, II, and III
13. A sample of DNA is sequenced and is found to consist of 32% guanine. Which conclusion can be drawn about the composition of the DNA sample?
A. It consists of 18% cytosine and 18% thymine.B. It consists of 18% adenine and 18% cytosine.C. It consists of 32% cytosine and 18% thymine.D. It consists of 32% adenine and 18% cytosine.E. It consists of 32% thymine and 18% adenine.
14. During mitosis, a checkpoint ensures that all chromosomal kinetochore proteins, present at the centromere of each sister chromatid, are attached to spindle fibers. Kinetochore proteins that are unattached produce a signal that prevents mitosis from proceeding to the next stage. This checkpoint occurs at the transition from
A. anaphase to telophaseB. prophase to metaphaseC. metaphase to telophaseD. prophase to anaphaseE. metaphase to anaphase
15. Scientists constructed a phylogenetic tree of modern lizard genera based on DNA sequences, shown below.
Which genus can be identified as the closest relative of the genus Pletholax?
A. DelmaB. AprasiaC. ParadelmaD. LialisE. Pygopus
16. Scientists constructed a phylogenetic tree of modern lizard genera based on DNA sequences, shown below.
Lizards from which two genera most likely have the greatest number of noncoding DNA differences between them?
A. Aprasiaand OphidiocephalusB. Pygopusand OphidiocephalusC. Lialisand AprasiaD. Pygopusand PletholaxE. Lialisand Delma
17. Scientists constructed a phylogenetic tree of modern lizard genera based on DNA sequences, shown below.
Within this group of lizards, several genera have evolved characteristics similar to those found in snakes. One mutation contributed to a diminished external ear in the genera indicated by an asterisk. What is the most recent point at which this mutation most likely occurred?
A. After Aprasiadiverged from ParadelmaB. After Lialisdiverged from PletholaxC. When Aprasiaand Pletholaxlast shared a common ancestorD. When Lialisand Pygopuslast shared a common ancestorE. After Aprasiadiverged from Ophidiocephalus
18. A female chimpanzee recently gave birth to an infant while in captivity. Because the paternity of the infant is unclear, scientists tested the DNA from two male chimpanzees, along with the female and infant. The resulting electrophoresis gel is shown.
Which labeled DNA fragment is largest?
A. 1B. 2C. 3D. 4E. 5
19. A female chimpanzee recently gave birth to an infant while in captivity. Because the paternity of the infant is unclear, scientists tested the DNA from two male chimpanzees, along with the female and infant. The resulting electrophoresis gel is shown.
Which fragments must the infant have received from its father?
A. 1 and 2B. 2 and 5C. 3 and 4D. 3 and 5E. 4 and 5
20. A female chimpanzee recently gave birth to an infant while in captivity. Because the paternity of the infant is unclear, scientists tested the DNA from two male chimpanzees, along with the female and infant. The resulting electrophoresis gel is shown.
Based on the gel electrophoresis result, what can be concluded?
I. Male 1 could possibly be the parent.
II. Male 1 can be ruled out as the parent.
III. Male 2 could possibly be the parent.
IV. Male 2 can be ruled out as the parent.
A. II onlyB. I and IIIC. I and IVD. II and IIIE. II and IV
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