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1. The diagram shows the muscles involved in extending the arm. Which actions result in this movement?
A. Muscle 1 relaxes while muscle 2 contracts.B. Muscle 1 contracts while muscle 2 relaxes.C. Muscle 1 contracts, and then both muscles relax.D. Muscle 1 and muscle 2 both relax the same time.E. Muscle 1 and muscle 2 both contract at the same time.
2. Which cellular process is responsible for the change shown below?
A. Closing of stomataB. Slowing of photosynthesisC. Reduction in protein synthesisD. Degradation of the cytoskeletonE. Decreased pressure in the vacuole
3. During which phase of mitosis do the centromeres split?
A. AnaphaseB. CytokinesisC. MetaphaseD. ProphaseE. Telophase
4. Which of the following plays an important role in the human immune system
A. FemurB. MetatarsalsC. PatellaD. ScapulaE. Vertebra
5. How do enzymes help to carry out biochemical reactions?
A. By decreasing the energy of the reactantsB. By increasing the activation energy of the reactionC. By decreasing the activation energy of the reactionD. By increasing the energy of the products of the reactionE. By decreasing the energy of the products of the reaction
6. In which plants is the haploid gametophyte generation dominant?
III. Horsetails, ferns, club mosses (lycophytes and pterophytes)
IV. True mosses, liverworts, and hornworts (bryophtyes)
A. I onlyB. I and IIC. I, II, and IIID. III and IVE. IV only
7. Which of the following uses a countercurrent exchange system?
A. I and III onlyB. II and IV onlyC. I, II, and IIID. I, II, and IVE. I, II, III, and IV
8. Which describes the cause of eutrophication in lakes?
A. A lack of oxygenB. A lack of sunlightC. A lack of nutrientsD. An excess of oxygenE. An excess of nutrients
9. Two parents with dimples have a child with no dimples. The allele Dfor dimples is dominant. What are the possible genotypes of the parents?
I. DDand Dd
II. Ddand Dd
III. DDand dd
A. I onlyB. II onlyC. I or IID. II or IIIE. I, II, or III
10. Which of these are relationships in which one species benefits at the expense of another?
A. III onlyB. III and IVC. I, II, and IIID. II, III, and IVE. I, II, III, and IV
11. What is the most likely role of zooplankton in an aquatic ecosystem?
A. ProducerB. Primary consumerC. Secondary consumerD. Tertiary consumerE. Decomposer
12. Which refers to the degree to which a phenotype is determined by genetic variation in a population?
A. FitnessB. HeritabilityC. Limited environmental resourcesD. Overproduction of offspringE. Phenotypic variation
13. Which of the following is the smallest unit that can evolve through natural selection?
A. CellB. CladeC. OrganismD. PopulationE. Species
14. Which of the following leads to a replacement of the plant community in an ecosystem undergoing succession?
A. PollutionB. HerbivoryC. ParasitismD. Abiotic factorsE. Intraspecific competition
15. Which of the following describes a possible path of a carbon atom among atmospheric carbon dioxide, the tissues of a consumer, and the tissues of a producer?
A. Consumer←→producer←→atmosphere←→producerB. Producer←→consumer←→atmosphere←→consumerC. Producer←→atmosphere←→consumer←→atmosphereD. Atmosphere←→producer←→atmosphere←→consumerE. Consumer←→atmosphere←→producer←→atmosphere
16. Which of the following includes organisms that are able to utilize nitrogen in the form of nitrogen gas (N2)?
A. ProducersB. Primary consumersC. Secondary consumersD. Tertiary consumersE. Decomposers
17. The graph shows the body size distribution in a population. Which statement describes the effects of directional selection on the distribution?
A. The mean shifts, and the curve remains the same.B. The mean shifts, and the curve becomes narrower.C. The mean remains the same, and the curve becomes wider.D. The mean remains the same, and the curve becomes narrower.E. The mean shifts to both the left and the right, and two new curves form.
18. Which of the following characteristics are present in monocots?
A. I onlyB. II onlyC. I and IID. I and IIIE. II and III
19. Identify the organism shown using the following dichotomous key.
A. AcariB. AraneaeC. OpilionesD. ScorpionesE. Pseudoscorpiones
20. Within the animal lineage leading to humans, which of the following structures evolved first?
A. BoneB. CraniumC. JawsD. NotochordE. Vertebrae
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