SAT Subject US History Practice Question 1073: Answer and Explanation

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Question: 1073

4. Urban political machines during the Gilded Age

A. were scorned by immigrant groups, who were cheated by graft and corruption.
B. were usually associated with the Republican Party.
C. often formed alliances with the Women's Christian Temperance Union.
D. often provided a social safety net in an age when welfare did not yet exist.
E. were eliminated by the Pendleton Act.

Correct Answer: D


Immigrants received benefits, from jobs to money, which cemented their loyalty to the political machines. The urban political machines of the Gilded Age, especially New York's Tammany Hall, were associated with corruption, but immigrant groups stayed loyal to these machines. Urban politics from the Civil War until today have generally been dominated by the Democratic Party, not the Republicans. The political machines, with their strong working class and immigrant support, would not support the temperance movement. The Pendleton Act of 1883 was designed to eliminate federal patronage jobs by instituting a merit system of employment, which required some workers to pass civil service exams.

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