SAT Subject US History Practice Question 1101: Answer and Explanation
4. The National Industrial Recovery Act and the Wagner Act both dealt with the issue of
A. the government's right to set price controls.
B. employers' rights to exclude women from their workforce.
C. workers' rights to organize unions.
D. states' rights to regulate interstate trade.
E. corporations' rights to cooperate in setting industrywide standards.
Correct Answer: C
The Wagner Act was passed after NIRA was declared unconstitutional. Both made it clear that workers had the right to organize into unions. Roosevelt thought that if workers were in unions, they would win higher wages and have greater purchasing power. Some sections of NIRA established prices on products, but the Wagner Act did not. While there was pressure during the Depression on women to give up their jobs so that men could work, no specific legislation excluded women from the workforce. The Supreme Court dealt with the question of interstate trade in two decisions, Munn v. Illinois (1877) and Wabash v. Illinois (1886). The first upheld the states' right to regulate railroads; the second held that only Congress could regulate interstate trade.