SAT Subject US History Practice Question 656: Answer and Explanation

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Question: 656

7. In response to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the United States

A. issued a document refusing to recognize Japanese actions as legitimate.
B. called a special session of the League of Nations.
C. sent General MacArthur to command U.S. forces in the Pacific.
D. engaged in a policy of watchful waiting.
E. sent the Panay, a naval vessel, to the coast of Japan.

Correct Answer: A


Japan's invasion violated two important treaties designed to protect the "open-door" trading policy with China. The first was the Nine-Power Pact of 1922, which sought "to safeguard the rights and interests of China" and to encourage trade "between China and the other Powers upon the basis of equality of opportunity." The second was the 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact, which forbade signatories from using "war as an instrument of national policy." Since President Hoover refused to impose sanctions on Japan, Secretary of State Henry Stimson drafted what became known as the Stimson Doctrine: the U.S. did not "intend to recognize any treaty or agreement" that would "impair the treaty rights of the United States or its citizens in China." The United States was not a member of the League of Nations (B). General MacArthur (C) was the commander of the Allied troops in the Pacific during World War II, not in 1931. The policy of watchful waiting (D) was associated with Woodrow Wilson and the problems in Mexico, in the 1910s. The U.S. Navy gunboat Panay (E) was fired upon by the Japanese in 1937, resulting in an apology from the Japanese. It was not related to the Manchuria problem.

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