SAT Subject US History Practice Question 697: Answer and Explanation

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Question: 697

48. Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. DuBois differed in their approaches to addressing discrimination against African Americans. Which statement below best represents Washington's position?

A. Since racial integration is not possible in the United States, African Americans should go back to Africa.
B. The best way for African Americans to improve their position in society is to gain vocational training to obtain jobs in agriculture, crafts, and manufacturing.
C. African Americans should engage in nonviolent civil disobedience to put pressure on the federal government to end discriminatory practices.
D. African Americans should pursue equality 'by any means necessary,' including violence in self-defense.
E. African Americans could best achieve their goals by running candidates for public office to vote out those who discriminate against them in state and federal government.

Correct Answer: B

Explanation:

Washington insisted that African Americans accommodate themselves to existing society by learning farming and manual skills. He was challenged by the more radical DuBois, who advocated resistance to racist practices. It was Marcus Garvey who attracted a following in the late 1910s and 1920s with his affirmation of racial pride and the "back to Africa" movement (A). Martin Luther King Jr. is closely identified with the nonviolent civil disobedience movement of the 1950s and 1960s, which sought to end racial segregation (C). Choice (D) incorporates a famous phrase by Malcolm X. Choice (E) might represent the viewpoint of many contemporary African American politicians.

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