SAT Subject US History Practice Question 724: Answer and Explanation
75. The effect of Jim Crow laws, passed by Southern states after the Reconstruction period, was
A. stricter voting requirements for African Americans.
B. the loss of citizenship for many African Americans.
C. separate economies-one run by and for whites and one run by and for African Americans.
D. a shift in African American loyalties from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party.
E. racial segregation in public facilities.
Correct Answer: E
Jim Crow laws created separate public facilities for African Americans. These included separate schools, water fountains, and waiting rooms at bus and train stations. The facilities were not equal, but such laws stood until the 1950s and 1960s. Stricter voting requirements (A) came about as a result of literacy tests or poll taxes. African Americans were not considered citizens (B) as a result of the Dred Scott v. Sanford decision (1857). The economic activities of whites and African Americans were tightly linked (C), with African Americans performing domestic and manual labor for whites. The shift of African American voters from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party (D) did not occur until 1936.