SAT Subject US History Practice Question 773: Answer and Explanation
34. In the years between the Civil War and 1900, the South
A. developed an extensive railroad network.
B. remained primarily agricultural with a few pockets of industry.
C. became economically independent from the rest of the United States.
D. encouraged higher tariffs to prevent foreign cotton from coming into the country.
E. experienced the same economic progress as did the North.
Correct Answer: B
Despite the hopes of Southern moderates that a "New South" would emerge in the post-Reconstruction years, the South failed, for the most part, to industrialize and develop economically until the post-World War II period. Pockets of industry did develop in the 1800s, most notably in Birmingham, Alabama. For this reason, the development of an extensive railroad network (A) and parallel economic growth (E) did not take place. Since the South had little industry, it was dependent on the rest of the country (C). Foreign cotton was not coming into the United States because domestic cotton was plentiful and cheap. There was no need for tariffs (D). The industrial North, not the South, was in favor of high tariffs on manufactured goods.