SAT Subject US History Practice Question 839: Answer and Explanation
10. When Stokely Carmichael became the leader of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee in 1966, its key slogan changed from
A. Freedom Now to "Black Power."
B. Self-Defense to "Pick up the Gun."
C. We Shall Overcome to "Dare to Struggle Dare to Win."
D. Tune In to "Drop Out."
E. Back to Africa to "By Any Means Necessary."
Correct Answer: A
Stokely Carmichael was the leader of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) who led the Black Power split in 1966. SNCC had been an organization concentrating on civil rights. The Black Power advocates changed the goals from legal rights for blacks to black economic power and black separatism. This shift in philosophy forced whites and integrationist blacks out of the organization. "Self-Defense" (B) and "Pick up the Gun" were both slogans of the Black Panther Party. "We Shall Overcome" (C) was the most famous nonviolent Civil Rights Movement anthem, and "Dare to Struggle Dare to Win" was a Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) slogan from 1968. "Turn on, Tune in, Drop out" (D) was Timothy Leary's slogan. "Back to Africa" was Marcus Garvey's slogan from the 1920s. Malcolm X was the advocate of making change "By any means necessary" (E), which was not a call for violence but for self-defense.