SAT Subject US History Practice Question 894: Answer and Explanation
65. The 17th Amendment (direct election of U.S. Senators), the initiative, and the recall were all intended to
A. break up the power of municipal political machines, such as Tammany Hall.
B. empower the government to challenge big business.
C. extend civil rights to African Americans.
D. give the people more power in the democratic process.
E. relieve the suffering of the poor.
Correct Answer: D
The 17th Amendment (1917) called for the direct election of senators, the initiative allowed voters to instruct the legislature to address a specific issue, and the recall allowed voters to sign a petition to have a special election to try to unseat an unpopular politician. All were designed to put more power in the hands of the people. All were pushed by the Progressive movement. Municipal reforms, such as the commission form of government, helped break up the power of municipal machines (A). The Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) and the Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) were designed to check big business (B). The Reconstruction era amendments, the 13th, 14th, and 15th, were intended to expand civil rights for African Americans (C). Much of the New Deal legislation was designed to relieve the suffering of the poor (E).