SAT Subject US History Practice Question 916: Answer and Explanation

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Question: 916

87. As the Civil Rights Movement shifted its focus to the North and issues of de facto segregation, which of the following became a central issue?

A. Separate lunch counters for African Americans and whites
B. Segregation in department store fitting rooms
C. Blacks and whites living in separate neighborhoods
D. Discrimination in waiting rooms in interstate bus stations
E. Requiring blacks and whites to use separate water fountains

Correct Answer: C


Neighborhood segregation was an example of de facto segregation-segregation caused by custom and economics rather than explicit law. When the civil rights movement moved to the North, it concentrated on de facto segregation, because it was the primary form of segregation in the North. De jure segregation refers to segregation by law. It was common in the South, while de facto segregation was common throughout the United States. Neighborhoods in the North and South were segregated by race because of the price of homes and the refusal of banks and mortgage brokers to give loans to blacks who wanted to move into "white" neighborhoods. Only the Southern states maintained segregation with "Whites Only" and "Colored Only" signs at lunch counters (A), fitting rooms (B), bus waiting rooms (D), and public water fountains (E).

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