SAT Subject US History Practice Question 917: Answer and Explanation
88. The Supreme Court decisions Gideon v. Wainwright and Miranda v. Arizona are significant in that they
A. expanded the rights of people accused of crimes.
B. made participation in the political system easier for African Americans.
C. strengthened the separation of church and state.
D. established the principle of equal pay for equal work.
E. ensured free speech during wartime.
Correct Answer: A
In Gideon, the Court ruled that free legal counsel be supplied to those who could not afford it. In Miranda, the Court ruled that suspects must be read their rights at the time of arrest and before questioning. The 24th Amendment struck down poll taxes, which had been an obstacle to African Americans (B) voting in the South. Engel v. Vitale, in 1963, ruled that school prayer was unconstitutional, thus strengthening the wall between church and state (C). The principle of equal pay for equal work (D) is part of civil rights law but was not established in a Supreme Court case. While the Supreme Court limited speech during World War I (Schenk v. United States), it expanded wartime speech (E) during the Vietnam War in the case Tinker v. Des Moines School District (1969). This case dealt with wearing armbands in school in protest of the war in Vietnam.