SAT Subject US History Practice Question 928: Answer and Explanation
9. The main goal of the Marshall Plan was to
A. rebuild European economies with a recovery program.
B. assist the agricultural economies of Latin America.
C. give aid to those communist nations that agreed to adopt democracy.
D. provide military aid to South Vietnam.
E. place Japan under a "nuclear umbrella."
Correct Answer: A
The Marshall Plan of 1947 focused on rebuilding the war-torn economies of Western Europe; it was not restricted to democratic countries (C). The Marshall Plan did not include aid to Latin America (B), although it gradually evolved into a global U.S. foreign aid program. Aid to Latin America was emphasized in the Kennedy administration, which initiated the Alliance for Progress (1961), a foreign aid program focused on Latin America. The Eastern bloc countries were offered Marshall Plan aid but refused it. The Marshall Plan was introduced seven years before the creation of South Vietnam (D). The United States offered protection to Japan (E) as a result of the Mutual Defense Treaty of 1952.