SAT Subject US History Practice Question 944: Answer and Explanation
25. The Bessemer process, which was important in the industrial growth of the United States in the second half of the 19th century, involved
A. using time-and-motion studies to streamline production and eliminate inefficiencies.
B. moving a product from worker to worker by a conveyor belt as it is being manufactured.
C. injecting air into molten iron to remove carbon and produce steel inexpensively.
D. connecting the various sites of an operation by telegraph wires to facilitate communication.
E. mass-producing interchangeable parts to decrease dependence on skilled craftspeople.
Correct Answer: C
The Bessemer process greatly reduced the cost of producing steel. Steel, which is lighter and stronger than iron, became an important material as America industrialized. It was used extensively in rails, bridges, and skyscrapers. Time-and-motion studies (A) are associated with Frederick Winslow Taylor and his push for scientific management. The conveyor belt (B) is associated with Henry Ford and the mass production of the automobile. After Samuel F. B. Morse developed the telegraph, its usefulness in the production process (D) became evident to a variety of large producers, but this was not related to the Bessemer process. Interchangeable parts (E) were first used by Eli Whitney in the production of muskets at the end of the 18th century.