SAT Subject US History Practice Question 976: Answer and Explanation

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Question: 976

57. Which of the following statements about the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act, passed by Congress over President Truman's veto, is true?

A. It was welcomed by suburban developers because it earmarked large sums of money for highway construction.
B. It was labeled the "Magna Carta for organized labor" by AFL-CIO head George Meany because it made it legal for workers to organize unions.
C. It was condemned by unions because it barred closed shops and allowed the president to call an 80-day "cooling-off" period before a strike could proceed.
D. It was supported by veterans groups because it provided aid to soldiers returning from World War II for college education and home ownership.
E. It was supported by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People because it required the federal government to end racial discrimination in defense industries.

Correct Answer: C

Explanation:

The Taft-Hartley Act (1947) was a Republican initiative to halt the progress of the labor movement. It outlawed many measures that had been approved by the Wagner Act (1935), such as the use of union dues for political activities and closed shops (union-only shops). It allowed the president to issue an 80-day injunction-a "cooling-off" period-if he or she believed that a strike could harm the economy. It also can be seen as an expression of the anti-communist sentiment of the late 1940s and 1950s; union leaders had to sign anti-communist pledges. Interstate highways (A) were funded by the Federal Highway Act (1956). The Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) was labeled the "Magna Carta for organized labor" (B) because it excluded unions from antitrust litigation. Veterans (D) got aid from the 1946 Servicemen's Readjustment Act, or G.I. Bill. Racial integration in defense industries (E) was the result of Executive Order 8802 (1941).

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