SAT US History Subject Test: Full-length Practice Test 1

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Question 90 questions

Time 60 minutes

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1. "Slavery now stands erect, clanking its chains on the territory of Kansas, surrounded by a code of death, and trampling upon all cherished liberties." This statement was most likely made by a(n)

A. Whig
B. muckraker
C. plantation owner
D. Democrat
E. abolitionist

2. The president's power to veto a bill is checked by Congress's power to

A. override the veto with a two-thirds majority vote
B. filibuster
C. call for a referendum
D. petition the states
E. impeach

3. The Olmec, the Maya, the Toltec, the Aztec, and the Inca are the earliest major civilizations of the Americas and are termed the

A. Paleolithic migrations
B. cultures of "blue men"
C. Mesoamerican cultures
D. Tewa nations
E. sun worshippers

4. Even though the Tea Act of 1773 lowered the price of East India tea, the colonists opposed it primarily because

A. the British were selling the colonies inferior tea
B. the price of the tea included a tax the colonists did not want to pay
C. the Dutch threatened to stop trading with the colonies
D. the act gave trading privileges to Dutch merchants over colonial merchants
E. the British colonial governors took the tea for themselves

5. Most European immigrants at the turn of the nineteenth century passed through:

A. Castle Garden, New York
B. Roosevelt Island, New York
C. The Port of Boston, Massachusetts
D. Ellis Island, New York
E. Plymouth, Massachusetts

6. Henry Clay's proposal that Maine enter the Union as a free state and Missouri enter as a slave state was called

A. the Maine Compromise
B. the Missouri Compromise
C. the Clay Compromise
D. Clay's Folly
E. the Know-Nothing Agreement

7. In a 1906 speech, Theodore Roosevelt described a man with a muckrake who "fixes his eyes . . . only on that which is vile and debasing." His speech gave rise to the new word muckrakers, referring to

A. farmers in lowland areas
B. trial lawyers
C. religious leaders
D. judges in criminal courts
E. investigative journalists

8. The only United States president who was not a member of a Protestant sect was

A. Franklin D. Roosevelt
B. Harry S Truman
C. Dwight D. Eisenhower
D. John F. Kennedy
E. Lyndon B. Johnson


Several countries on this map were conquered by Germany in 1940, causing the United States to sign the Atlantic Charter with Great Britain. Two of the conquered countries were

A. Switzerland and France
B. France and Spain
C. Belgium and France
D. Belgium and Portugal
E. Switzerland and Luxembourg

10. In the aftermath of President Kennedy's assassination, a commission was formed to review the evidence and publish a report. The commission was headed by

A. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson
B. Pierre Salinger
C. Senator J. William Fulbright
D. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy
E. Chief Justice Earl Warren

11. The Fourteen Points, presented in January 1918, were

A. Winston Churchill's plans for dealing with Hitler
B. American suffragists' demands for women's rights
C. Woodrow Wilson's plan for building peace in the post-World War I world
D. sections of the income tax amendment to the Constitution
E. the Socialist Party's proposal for economic fairness

12. White Southerners were opposed to Northerners who trav eled south after the Civil War to work for racial justice and/or make money. They called these people:

A. mugwumps
B. Whigs
C. dog robbers
D. Southern sympathizers
E. carpetbaggers

13. President James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, warning European powers not to establish new colonies in the western hemisphere. This policy was supported by

A. Spain
B. Russia
C. England
D. France
E. Cuba

14. The voyage that brought African captives across the Atlantic to the Americas and the West Indies is referred to as the

A. Middle Passage
B. Northwest Passage
C. China Passage
D. Passage to India
E. Bermuda Passage

15. Gifford Pinchot is associated with a movement that began in the nineteenth century and focused on protecting the country's natural environment. Thismovement is called the

A. Greenpeace movement
B. emancipation movement
C. enfranchisement movement
D. conservationist movement
E. emigration movement

16. "Tippecanoe and Tyler, too" was a campaign slogan in the presidential election of 1840. "Tippecanoe" refers to

A. John Tyler
B. Andrew Jackson
C. Benjamin Harrison
D. William Henry Harrison
E. George Rogers Clark

17. Beginning in 1663 with Carolina, a second wave of colonization in British North America was facilitated by

A. the restoration of Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans to power in Great Britain
B. King George II of Great Britain
C. the restoration of the monarchy in Britain and land grants in the New World from Charles II to his supporters
D. the voyages of exploration by John Cabot
E. peace pacts between French missionaries and Native American tribes

18. Jazz, flappers, bathtub gin, red-hot flannels, speakeasies, and radio stations were all elements of the era known as

A. the Gay Nineties
B. the Roaring Twenties
C. the Fabulous Sixties
D. Reconstruction
E. the turn of the century

19. The first U.S. military response to a suspected terrorist act came in 1986 when President Ronald Reagan ordered a bombing attack on which country?

A. Syria
B. Pakistan
C. Turkey
D. Uganda
E. Libya

20. Automation in the 1950s and 1960s brought about what two significant economic changes in the United States?

A. Increased hiring and tax cuts
B. An increase in manufacturing jobs and lower unemployment
C. Reductions in farm employment and elimination of factory jobs
D. Higher taxes and inflation
E. No changes

21. The U.S. pressured Cuba to accept the Platt Amendment in 1901. It made Cuba a protectorate of the United States. A protectorate is a

A. U.S. possession
B. country that promises to help protect the United States
C. country that contributes soldiers to the U.S. Army
D. country that accepts U.S. protection in exchange for the right of the United States to intervene in its affairs
E. country that is protected from U.S. aggression

22. The Fifteenth Amendment tried to ensure the right of black men to vote. The first presidential election after the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment was in

A. 1864
B. 1920
C. 1860
D. 1960
E. 1872


Which number on the map marks the Northwest Territory?

A. I
E. V

24. The Spanish explorer Vasco Nunez de Balboa, the first European to cross the isthmus of Panama, saw a body of water he thought was the South Sea. It was actually the

A. Atlantic Ocean
B. Pacific Ocean
C. Gulf of Mexico
D. Indian Ocean
E. Caribbean Sea

25. The route known as the Oregon Trail followed the Platte River

A. across the Appalachians and into Ohio
B. across the Rio Grande and up the California coast to Oregon
C. across the Great Plains to the Rocky Mountains and then into Oregon along the Snake River
D. across the Mississippi and along the Missouri River to the Badlands and into Canada
E. across the desert and up the Sierra Nevadas to Oregon

26. Ralph Nader became prominent during the 1960s as an advocate for

A. transportation improvements
B. education reform
C. consumer interests
D. congressional term limits
E. vegetarianism

27. On March 12, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt made a radio broadcast from the White House to explain his reasons for closing U.S. banks for a few days. This grew into a regular series of broadcasts that became known as

A. fireside chats
B. The FDR Hour
C. The State of the Union
D. America Today
E. This Week in the News

28. The "British Invasion" of 1964 refers to

A. an attack by Great Britain on the U.S. Virgin Islands
B. an increase in British immigration to Canada
C. the sale of British-made automobiles in the United States
D. the introduction of popular British rock bands to U.S. audiences
E. the broadcast of British television shows in the United States

29. The first union of skilled workers, founded by Samuel L. Gompers in 1886, was called the

A. Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
B. U.S. Department of Labor
C. International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU)
D. American Federation of Labor (AFL)
E. Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)

30. The first shots of the Revolutionary War were fired in which colony?

A. Massachusetts
B. Virginia
C. New Hampshire
D. Pennsylvania
E. New York

31. In The American Crisis, no. 1, Thomas Paine referred to "the summer soldier and the sunshine patriot." Whom did he mean?

A. Traitors to the U.S. Army
B. People who had supported independence before the war but changed their minds once it began
C. Colonists who had remained loyal to Great Britain all along
D. Soldiers who fired on the mobs during the Boston Massacre
E. Redcoats who fired on the minutemen, who were British subjects like themselves

32. Which of the following was NOT a primary aim of the Progressive movement of the early 1900s?

A. Passing laws that would improve slum conditions in large cities
B. Teaching immigrants to read, write, and speak English
C. Supporting the passage of legislation that would make the workplace safer
D. Creating public baths, parks, and playgrounds in urban areas
E. Making English the official language of the United States

33. The 1938 panic in which people thought that the earth was being attacked by hostile aliens from Mars was caused by a

A. radio broadcast of H. G. Wells's The War of the Worlds by Orson Welles and the Mercury Theater
B. series of swaths cut into mysterious symbolic shapes in Midwestern cornfields
C. power blackout that darkened the Northeast from Boston to Washington, D.C.
D. series of tornadoes in the Southeast in which many people disappeared
E. mysterious cloud formation hovering over the face of the moon

34. Why did the writer Gertrude Stein describe Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and other artistic and literary Americans as a "lost generation" during the 1920s?

A. They preferred to live in Europe, not the United States.
B. They had fought recently on the losing side in World War I.
C. They were disillusioned by the experience of World War I.
D. They had lost all feeling of American patriotism.
E. They despised society and lived isolated lives.

35. The Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863,

A. freed all slaves in the United States
B. freed all slaves in the Confederate States
C. required all slaves to register with the government
D. gave all adult male slaves the right to vote
E. gave all adult male slaves the right to enlist in the Union Army

36. "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent." The phrase "iron curtain," coined in 1947, refers to the

A. Marshall Plan, which provided millions of dollars in U.S. aid to any nation in Europe that requested it
B. Allied invasion of Normandy during World War II
C. borderline between nations under Soviet communist influence and the rest of the world
D. borderline between Northern and Southern Europe
E. concrete wall that divided East Berlin from West Berlin

37. Jane Addams opened Hull House in Chicago in 1889 for all the following reasons EXCEPT:

A. providing meaningful career opportunities for young women
B. improving living conditions in the immediate neighborhood
C. providing a day-care center for the young children of working parents
D. teaching English and other subjects to newly arrived immigrants
E. eliminating racial segregation throughout the city of Chicago

38. "Labor is prior to, and independent of, capital. Capital is only the fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first existed. Labor is the superior of capital and deserves much the higher consideration." Which of the following would the speaker of this quotation most likely support?

A. Prohibition
B. Socialism
C. Segregation
D. Progressivism
E. Capitalism


Which of the following statements do the data shown on this graph support?

A. The greatest rise in the number of working women over the decade was among farmers.
B. In 1960, a working woman was most likely to have a job in the field of manual labor.
C. Over the course of the decade, about 7 million women joined the white-collar workforce.
D. About 3 million women moved from the manual-labor category into the white-collar category.
E. Between 1960 and 1970, the number of working women doubled.

40. People in the United States lost confidence in President Herbert Hoover primarily because

A. his policies did not bring about an economic recovery
B. the Hoover Dam was an environmental disaster
C. the judges he appointed to the Supreme Court were incompetent
D. he outlawed membership in the Socialist and Communist parties
E. he established the Federal Farm Board in 1929

41. The primary purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804–1806 was to

A. make accurate maps of the Louisiana Territory
B. search for a water route across North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific
C. register all the Native American tribes living in the Louisiana Territory
D. study the various types of plant and animals in the Louisiana Territory
E. establish friendly relations with the Native American tribes of the Pacific Coast

42. Which of the following would give a historian the clearest insight into the reasons for the way the Constitution was written?

A. Minutes and transcripts of debates to the Constitutional Convention
B. The diary of a Convention delegate such as James Madison or Benjamin Franklin
C. A copy of the Federalist Papers
D. Newspaper editorials published during the Constitutional Convention
E. A copy of the Constitution

43. Which of the following facts supports the theory that the War of 1812 brought about economic prosperity in the United States?

A. The USS Constitution destroyed several British warships.
B. Andrew Jackson led his troops to victory in the Battle of New Orleans.
C. Great Britain and the United States became allies after the war ended.
D. Trade embargoes forced U.S. manufacturers to expand operations.
E. The Treaty of Ghent strengthened U.S. control over the Northwest Territory.

44. What took place during the Saturday Night Massacre?

A. A mob of Bostonians threw stones at British troops, who retaliated by firing on them.
B. General George Armstrong Custer and all his troops were killed at the Battle of Little Bighorn.
C. Attorney General Eliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus resigned rather than obey President Nixon's order to fire Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox.
D. George Washington and his troops captured and imprisoned the entire Hessian force at Trenton, New Jersey.
E. The stock market crashed on October 24, 1929, and some prominent people who had lost their fortunes committed suicide.

45. Which nation was NOT involved in the 1921 FourPower Treaty, an agreement to respect territorial claims in the Pacific?

A. France
B. Great Britain
C. Japan
D. The Netherlands
E. The United States

46. Which novel was a catalyst for reform in the meatpacking industry under President Theodore Roosevelt?

A. Manhattan Transferby John Dos Passos
B. The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
C. Babbitt by Sinclair Lewis
D. The Octopusby Frank Norris
E. The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck

47. African Americans moved west in large numbers after the Civil War for all the following reasons EXCEPT:

A. to look for greater racial tolerance and economic opportunity
B. to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the Harlem Renaissance
C. to escape violent persecution by angry white Southerners
D. to acquire farmland that the Homestead Act made available for free to the first people to claim it
E. to work on building the railroad that soon would connect the East Coast and the West Coast

48. Which of the following was NOT proposed in 1850 to the U.S. Senate as a compromise between proslavery and antislavery factions?

A. Admission to the United States of California as a free state
B. Continuation of slavery in the District of Columbia
C. Passage of tougher fugitive slave legislation
D. Purchase of its claim to New Mexico Territory from Texas
E. Division of Texas into two new territories: New Mexico and Utah

49. Which of the following most aptly supports the assertion that Native Americans have suffered the worst discrimination of all groups in U.S. history?

A. Native Americans taught the colonists to grow corn and gather plants that were safe and nutritious to eat.
B. European explorers and colonists introduced Native Americans to the horse as a working animal and to pigs and chickens as sources of food.
C. Native Americans and Europeans had different cultural values.
D. Congress did not grant universal U.S. citizenship for Native Americans until 1924.
E. The European invaders and colonists of North America refused to learn Native American languages.

50. Which war did young Americans protest by burning their draft cards and draft notices, fleeing to Canada, and demonstrating against the administration?

A. Korean War
B. Vietnam War
C. Persian Gulf War
D. War in Afghanistan
E. Iraq War

51. Which statement most aptly supports the theory that the Black Sox scandal of 1919 was a result of the exploitation of labor by management?

A. F. Scott Fitzgerald referred to the scandal as "playing with the faith of fifty million people."
B. The baseball players were in effect indentured servants with no right to strike or to accept offers from other teams.
C. The eight White Sox players accused of conspiring to cheat were acquitted in a jury trial.
D. Baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis permanently banned the eight "Black Sox" from professional baseball.
E. Millions of Americans were cheated in their expectation of seeing a fairly contested World Series.

52. Which of the following is the correct chronological order of the three Civil War battles?

A. Antietam, Gettysburg, Shiloh
B. Gettysburg, Shiloh, Antietam
C. Shiloh, Gettysburg, Antietam
D. Gettysburg, Antietam, Shiloh
E. Shiloh, Antietam, Gettysburg

53. "And the dispossessed, the migrants, flowed into California, two hundred and fifty thousand, and three hundred thousand. Behind them new tractors were going on to the land and the tenants were being forced off. And new waves were on the way, new waves of the dispossessed and the homeless, hardened, intent, and dangerous." The author of this quotation is describing

A. pioneers riding westward along the Oregon Trail
B. prospectors hurrying to California during the Gold Rush of 1849
C. farmers leaving the Dust Bowl during the Great Depression
D. Mexicans crossing the Rio Grande into the United States
E. African Americans migrating west during Reconstruction

54. What was the most significant result of the Battle of Little Bighorn?

A. The U.S. Army redoubled its efforts to move Native Americans to reservations.
B. The U.S. 7th Cavalry troops were all killed in the battle.
C. The 7th Cavalry attacked the Lakota at dawn after riding all night.
D. The Lakota felt more confident about their ability to fight the U.S. Army.
E. The Native American tribes of the southern plains agreed to move to Indian Territory.

55. Everyday life in the United States changed after the Second Industrial Revolution in all the following ways EXCEPT:

A. More people worked in factories.
B. Electricity changed the way people worked and played.
C. People could travel longer distances in a fraction of the time.
D. Instant long-distance communication became commonplace.
E. The percentage of women working in offices declined as factory work opened up opportunities for women.

56. The Mexican-American War was caused primarily by

A. a border dispute between Mexico and Texas
B. an unpaid debt that Mexico owed the United States
C. the involvement of the United States in the 1836 Texas revolution
D. the overthrow of the Mexican administration and its replacement by a military regime
E. the Texan siege of the Spanish mission/fort known as the Alamo

57. The primary reason the Confederate Army lost the Battle of Gettysburg was that

A. the Union troops did not have sufficient reinforcements to win the battle
B. Confederate General Robert E. Lee was a strategically gifted commander
C. the Union forces were able to hold the high ground northwest of Gettysburg
D. the Confederate troops retreated south after Pickett's Charge
E. Union troops vastly outnumbered the Confederates

58. The earliest example of republican government in North America is the

A. Mayflower Compact
B. Articles of Confederation
C. Iroquois Confederacy
D. Gettysburg Address
E. U.S. Constitution


Which dot on the map represents the site where the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads met to form the transcontinental railroad in 1869?

A. I
E. V

60. As the Constitutional Convention ended, Benjamin Franklin commented about a half-sun with its rays painted on George Washington's chair that "now at length I have the happiness to know that it is a rising and not a setting sun." Franklin meant these words as

A. a criticism of the delegates to the Convention who did not share his faith in the Constitution
B. an indication that he knew that the fight for the ratification of the Constitution would be difficult
C. a joke about the poor quality of the furniture in Independence Hall
D. an expression of hope and optimism for the new government he had helped design
E. a criticism of the painter of the chair


The heavy line drawn across the map above shows the

A. route of the De Soto party of Spanish explorers
B. route of the Lewis and Clark expedition
C. Oregon Trail
D. Northwest Passage
E. Wilderness Road

62. The Farmers' Alliance of the 1870s was founded with all the following goals EXCEPT:

A. organizing cooperatives to buy equipment and market farm products
B. offering farmers low-cost insurance
C. lobbying for tougher bank regulations
D. helping members in times of hardship such as drought
E. supporting private ownership of national railroads

63. Pocahontas's friendship with the Jamestown colonists was historically important because she

A. encouraged trust and good relations between Native Americans and colonists
B. set other Native American women an example by marrying John Rolfe of Jamestown
C. made it possible for the Native Americans and colonists to trade with one another
D. ensured that the colonists granted the Native Americans full equal legal rights
E. permanently ended hostilities between the Native Americans and colonists

64. Which factor contributed most to the rise of membership in labor unions between 1915 and 1920?

A. The efforts of progressive reformers
B. The expansion of the open shop
C. The fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company
D. The passage of the Fourteenth Amendment
E. The exclusion of unskilled workers

65. Which event did NOT lead directly to the annexation of Hawaii as a U.S. territory in 1898?

A. Passage of the McKinley Tariff of 1890
B. Formation of the Secret Hawaiian League in 1886
C. Election of William McKinley to the presidency in 1898
D. Rebellion of Hawaiian supporters of annexation in 1893
E. Coronation of Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii in 1891

66. What is the significance of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry regiment of the Union Army?

A. It began the Civil War by firing on Fort Sumter.
B. It was composed entirely of African-American soldiers and officers.
C. It was the first African-American regiment to play a major role in a military campaign.
D. It was an aristocratic regiment whose officers refused any pay.
E. It included a number of women who disguised themselves as men in order to take part in combat.

67. Which of the following best supports the theory that the United States had imperialist ambitions as of the end of the nineteenth century?

A. The establishment of the Open Door Policy in 1899
B. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904
C. The annexation of Hawaii in 1898
D. The popularity of yellow journalism in 1890s
E. The start of Mexican Revolution in 1910

68. Spanish and Spanish-sponsored parties explored and/or settled all the following areas of North America EXCEPT:

A. the northern Atlantic coast
B. the Gulf of Mexico
C. the Pacific coast
D. the Southwest
E. the Mississippi valley

69. Soon after World War I broke out in Europe, people in the United States became outraged against Germany because of the 1915 sinking of the

A. Titanic
B. Maine
C. Lusitania
D. Constitution
E. Hindenburg

70. The development of atomic technology affected daily life in the United States in all the following ways EXCEPT:

A. encouraging schools to teach more math and science classes
B. contributing to the popularity of science-fiction literature and movies
C. leading to widespread fears of a nuclear attack
D. reinforcing the fear of former allies France and Great Britain
E. spurring people to build or make bomb shelters

71. Which of the following is NOT guaranteed in the Bill of Rights?

A. Freedom from cruel and unusual punishment for crimes
B. Possession of rights other than those listed in the Constitution
C. Protection against search and seizure of property without a warrant
D. The right to remain silent if arrested and tried for a crime
E. The right to vote for all free males age 21 or over


Which of the following statements is supported by the data in the bar graph above?

A. In 1966, African Americans did not support the Vietnam War.
B. In 1970, more women than men supported the Vietnam War.
C. Support for the Vietnam War dropped among all Americans between 1966 and 1970.
D. Between 1966 and 1970, support for the war dropped by a greater percentage among white women than in any other category.
E. A higher percentage of African-American men than white women supported the war.


According to the graph, which of the following had the greatest negative impact on the value of British imports to the colonies?

A. Passage of the Sugar Act, 1764
B. Passage of Stamp Act, 1765
C. British troops arriving in Boston, 1768
D. Townshend Acts repealed, 1770
E. Passage of Intolerable Acts, 1774

74. "Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal." To which of the following events is the speaker of this quotation alluding?

A. Signing of the Declaration of Independence
B. Ratification of the Constitution
C. Passage of the Bill of Rights
D. Repeal of Prohibition
E. Passage of the Civil Rights Act

75. "We believe that America had something better to offer mankind than those aims she is now pursuing.... She has lost her unique position as a potential leader in the progress of civilization and has taken up her place simply as one of the grasping and selfish nations of the present day." The speaker of this quotation most likely opposed the

A. Lewis and Clark expedition
B. California gold rush
C. annexation of the Philippines
D. Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition
E. passage of the Nineteenth Amendment

76. Congress passed the War Powers Act in response to the

A. Korean War
B. Vietnam War
C. Persian Gulf War
D. Six-Day War
E. Iraq War

77. The 1783 Treaty of Paris granted the United States all the following EXCEPT:

A. British recognition of the United States as an independent nation
B. all territory between the 13 states and the Mississippi River
C. the right to maintain a standing army in the former colonies
D. British acceptance of U.S. payment of all debts owed by the colonies
E. fishing rights in the Gulf of St. Lawrence

78. Which of the following made it possible for the United States to govern and control the Canal Zone in Panama?

A. The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
B. The Platt Amendment
C. The Jones Act
D. The Foraker Act
E. The Roosevelt Corollary

79. "I think we came, without really knowing it, to make the memorial our wailing wall. We came to find the names of those we lost in the war, as if by tracing the letters cut into the granite we could find what was left of ourselves ...." The speaker most likely is referring to the

A. Ellis Island memorial
B. Lincoln Memorial
C. Vietnam War Memorial
D. Washington Monument
E. Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

80. All the following people were key figures in the Watergate scandal EXCEPT:

A. Richard M. Nixon
B. John Dean III
C. James McCord
D. Robert Bork
E. Robert S. McNamara

81. "Every nation, in every region, now has a decision to make. Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists. From this day forward, any nation that continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United Sates as a hostile regime." These words most likely were spoken by which president?

A. Abraham Lincoln
B. Ulysses S. Grant
C. Woodrow Wilson
D. Franklin D. Roosevelt
E. George W. Bush

82. What was the connection between political machines of the late 1800s and the need for city services?

A. Political bosses often supported public projects.
B. Voters who wanted city services boycotted the polls on election day.
C. The federal government took over public works projects during the New Deal era.
D. The New York City subway system was built by the Tweed political machine.
E. The political machines refused all interest in public-works projects.

83. "Reformation must be effected; the foundation of southern institutions, both political, municipal, and social must be broken up and relaid, or all our blood and treasure have been spent in vain. . . . Without this, this government can never be, as it has never been, a true republic."

The author of the above statement most likely opposed the

A. Black Codes
B. Civil Rights Act
C. Platt Amendment
D. Seneca Falls Convention
E. Tenure of Office Act

84. Which of the following women is NOT famous for her activities in wartime?

A. Clara Barton
B. Mary Ludwig Hayes
C. Deborah Sampson
D. Susan B. Anthony
E. Tokyo Rose

85. The maintenance of the peace and safety of the United States was the stated aim of the

A. XYZ Affair
B. Alien and Sedition Acts
C. Bill of Rights
D. Federalist Papers
E. Louisiana Purchase

86. To which author did Abraham Lincoln jokingly say, on meeting her, "So you're the little lady who started this great war"?

A. Edith Wharton
B. Harriet Beecher Stowe
C. Zorah Neale Hurston
D. Louisa May Alcott
E. Mary Mapes Dodge

87. Which of the following happened for the fist time during the presidential election of 1828?

A. A Federalist won the election.
B. Free African Americans voted.
C. The voters, not the state legislatures, chose the electors.
D. Native Americans voted.
E. A war hero won the election.

88. Which president's domestic programs were collectively known as the Great Society?

A. Franklin D. Roosevelt
B. Harry S. Truman
C. Dwight D. Eisenhower
D. John F. Kennedy
E. Lyndon B. Johnson

89. Over which issue did Congress agree to permit or withhold statehood from territories that applied for it between 1828 and 1860?

A. Free public education
B. Land grants to farmers
C. Slavery
D. Temperance
E. Woman suffrage

90. At the time of the Louisiana Purchase, which country did NOT claim any land in North America?

A. France
B. Great Britain
C. Holland
D. Spain
E. United States