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1. All the following authors wrote about the history and experiences of African-American women EXCEPT:
A. Toni Morrison B. Alice Walker C. Maya Angelou D. Jamaica Kincaid E. Nella Larsen
2. The conference held between the U.S. government and the Plains tribes of Native Americans in 1851 resulted in which of the following?
A. The tribes agreed not to migrate freely throughout the Plains anymore. B. The United States banished the tribes to present-day Oklahoma. C. The United States agreed to end westward migration through Native American territory. D. The U.S. government outlawed the killing of buffalo. E. The tribes accepted an offer of full U.S. citizenship in exchange for giving up their traditional hunting culture.
3. It has been done for the sake of political power, in order to bring two new slaveholding senators upon this floor. The senator who made the above statement was referring to the passage of the
A. Fugitive Slave Act B. Kansas-Nebraska Act C. Dred Scott decision D. Reconstruction Acts E. Thirteenth Amendment
4. Which of the following philosophers had the strongest influence on the framers' decision that the Constitution would require a government with three branches and a balance of power among them?
A. Locke B. Montesquieu C. Voltaire D. Franklin E. Hobbes
5. The Supreme Court decision in the case of Dred Scott v. Sanford stated all the following EXCEPT:
A. A slave could not gain his or her freedom by moving to a free state or territory. B. Slaves had the legal status of property, not people. C. The Founding Fathers had never intended for Africans to become U.S. citizens. D. The Missouri Compromise violated the Fifth Amendment. E. Only individual states could decide whether a slave could become a citizen.
6. The scriptwriters known as the "Hollywood Ten" were blacklisted by the movie industry because they
A. failed to win awards for their studio producers B. made public speeches urging people to vote for third-party presidential candidates C. accused several people in the movie industry of being Communist Party members D. refused to answer questions asked by the House Un-American Activities Committee E. tried to organize a screenwriters' union in Hollywood
7. The Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire resulted in all the following EXCEPT:
A. The New York legislature enacted a stricter fire code. B. A labor reform commission was created. C. New workplace safety regulations were passed. D. The U.S. congress passed the Elkins Act and the Hepburn Act. E. About 150 workers were burned or crushed to death.
8. Bartolomeo Vanzetti and Nicola Sacco were con victed of the crime of
A. murder B. treason C. grand theft D. anarchy E. draft dodging
9. The GI Bill of Rights altered U.S. society by
A. admitting women to the U.S. military and naval academies B. making it possible for millions of veterans to attend college C. integrating the armed forces D. guaranteeing civilian employment to all veterans E. creating the U.S. Department of Veterans' Affairs
10. All the following are classic American autobiogra phies EXCEPT:
A. The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass by Frederick Douglass B. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou C. Little Town on the Prairie by Laura Ingalls Wilder D. The Story of My Lifeby Helen Keller E. The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane
11. The cattle boom of the late 1800s ended abruptly in part because of the
A. severe winter weather of the 1880s B. rise in prices as supply grew far beyond demand C. cooperative agreements among ranchers to allow free access across the plains to all herds D. trend toward larger ranches E. expansion of sheep ranching
The bar graph above implies which of the following about U.S. public opinion in the period preceding U.S. entry into World War I?
A. Most people in the United States preferred that the country remain neutral in the war. B. There were very few people of German descent in the United States. C. More than half of all people in the United States strongly supported the Allies. D. Most of the people surveyed were women. E. Most people in the United States would support a decision to go to war.
13. Which of the following rights did the Emancipation Proclamation confer on which group of people?
A. It freed all Confederate prisoners of war on condition that they not rejoin their army. B. It freed all slaves in the United States. C. It freed all slaves in the states in open rebellion. D. It gave all slaves the right to vote. E. It gave all Confederate citizens the right to move north and settle in Union states without suffering any penalty.
14. Prohibition had all the following effects EXCEPT:
A. People formed organizations to lobby for its repeal. B. Organized crime and violence escalated. C. The terms "speakeasy" and "bathtub gin" were added to the language. D. People in the United States stopped buying, selling, and drinking alcoholic beverages. E. The FBI established a department of operatives who investigated only Prohibition-related crimes.
15. Which of the following is the best example of the importance of a free press in a republic?
A. The disclosure of high crimes committed by members of the Nixon administration B. The television broadcasts of the destruction of the World Trade Center C. The "fireside chats" given by President Franklin D. Roosevelt over the radio D. The publication in the next day's newspapers of important presidential speeches E. The coverage of the legal battle over Terry Schiavo's right to die
16. Cuba and the Philippines were the primary battle grounds in which of the following wars?
A. Mexican-American War B. War of 1812 C. World War I D. Spanish-American War E. World War II
17. Which of the following political parties passed a "gag rule" in 1837 that banned any discussion of abolition in Congress?
A. Whig Party B. Democratic Party C. Federalist Party D. Free-Soil Party E. Republican Party
18. The Antifederalists were unwilling to approve the Constitution primarily because
A. it did not include a Bill of Rights B. it did not give the central government enough authority over the states C. it made no provision for a judicial branch of government D. it referred to the chief executive of the nation as the "president of the United States" E. it was largely the work of Southern delegates
19. The completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869 had all the following effects EXCEPT:
A. increase in westward migration B. growth in the number of Western towns and cities C. rise in the national employment rate D. growth in the steel industry E. rise in automobile ownership and production
20. Newspaper illustrator-"Everything is quiet. There is no trouble here. There will be no war. I wish to return." Editor-"Please remain. You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war." The above exchange of telegrams most likely refers to
A. the Mexican-American War B. the First Seminole War C. the French and Indian War D. the Spanish-American War E. the Civil War
21. Before the United States gained sovereignty over the Panama Canal, it had been the project of
A. a French company led by Ferdinand de Lesseps B. a Spaniard named Vasco da Gama C. a collective South American venture led by Simon Bolivar D. the Dutch West India Company E. the British Empire
22. Puritan authorities banished Roger Williams from the Massachusetts Bay Colony primarily because he
A. believed in independence from the British king B. taught his congregation to sing and dance C. believed in strict separation of church and state D. wanted to be the leader of the Puritans E. preached against peace with the Native Americans
23. Which of the following Founding Fathers was never elected president of the United States?
A. Thomas Jefferson B. James Madison C. John Adams D. Elbridge Gerry E. James Monroe
24. Confederate leaders hoped for a military alliance with Great Britain and France primarily because
A. European nations did not disapprove of slavery B. Britain and France bought the bulk of the Southern cotton crop C. the Confederate industrial base was much smaller than the Union's D. the federal navy had remained loyal to the Union government E. the Civil War was fought largely in Confederate territory
25. Which of the following women was an outspoken critic of the Equal Rights Amendment?
A. Bella Abzug B. Phyllis Schlafly C. Shirley Chisholm D. Betty Friedan E. Jane Fonda
26. The Comstock Lode was discovered in 1857 in which of the following present-day states?
A. Alaska B. Texas C. New Mexico D. Nevada E. California
27. Rosie the Riveter became famous in the 1940s as which of the following?
A. A singing star on the radio B. An antiwar film heroine C. A weekly comic radio program D. A symbol of the importance of female workers to the war effort E. A nickname given to President Franklin D. Roosevelt
28. Which of the following statements best defines the economic term "depression"?
A. A sharp drop in business activity along with rising unemployment B. A large influx of foreign capital C. An unpredicted increase in exports with a decline in imports D. A lowering of interest rates E. The laws of supply and demand
29. Francis Cabot Lowell's development of the power loom in Massachusetts in the early 1800s gave rise to which of the following?
A. Automation B. Socialism C. Assembly-line manufacturing D. The factory system E. Labor strikes
30. New York Governor Alfred Smith's 1928 campaign for the presidency marked the first time that
A. a New Yorker was ever on the ballot B. the Democrats nominated the governor of a large state C. a Catholic ran for president D. a career politician was nominated to national office E. the Democratic Convention reached a decision on the first ballot
31. George Rogers Clark made which of the following contributions to the Revolutionary War in the North west Territory?
A. He captured the traitor Benedict Arnold. B. He led the army that defeated the French. C. He captured Forts Ticonderoga and Crown Point. D. He captured Forts Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes. E. He defeated Lord Nelson on Lake Erie.
32. Southern farmers who could not afford slaves sup ported the institution of slavery primarily because
A. slaves allowed poor white farmers to prosper B. slavery gave poor whites status and a stake in society C. slaves needed overseers and Southern whites knew the job was well paid D. slaveowners lent slaves in slow times to poor farmers to help work their land E. farmers knew that competition would help the Southern economy in the long run
33. The Potsdam Conference was convened in July 1945 so that
A. Allied leaders could decide how to handle postwar Germany B. Allied leaders could determine how to handle the occupation of Japan C. the Soviet Union and the United States could decide how to divide China D. plans could be made for the Soviet Union to invade Japan E. Japan and the United States could draw up a peace agreement
34. Secretary of State John Hay called for an Open Door Policy toward China in 1899 primarily because
A. Japan threatened to close its ports to the West B. Britain and France were pulling out of Asia C. The United States feared it would be shut out of trade and investment in China D. Russia and France were about to go to war over China E. Russia blocked sea access to Manchuria
35. Article I of the Constitution assigns the vice president the duty of
A. signing legislation when the president is out of Washington B. negotiating treaties C. representing the United States at social functions D. presiding over meetings of the Senate E. introducing legislation to Congress
36. Which one of the following women found refuge in Rhode Island after the courts banished her from the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1638?
A. Susan B. Anthony B. Anne Hutchinson C. Anne Bradstreet D. Carrie Nation E. Hester Prynne
37. The Anasazi people constructed dwellings of
A. rock and adobe B. sticks and wet sand C. straw and mud D. mud and brick E. wood and stone
38. The success of the automobile industry caused rapid growth in all the following industries EXCEPT:
A. communications B. advertising C. credit D. oil refining E. asphalt and paving
39. In 1937 President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to grant him the power to do which of the following?
A. Move the Supreme Court into the White House B. Put the Supreme Court on administrative leave C. Replace every Supreme Court justice who was over 70 years of age D. Appoint nine new Supreme Court justices E. Dissolve the Supreme Court
40. Which of the following was president when the U.S. government acquired the last of the territory that would make up the contiguous United States?
A. Abraham Lincoln B. William McKinley C. James Polk D. Woodrow Wilson E. Franklin Pierce
41. Which statement best explains the trickle-down theory of economics?
A. Government-sponsored lotteries give people a chance to get rich. B. Lowering the top income tax rates will spur economic growth. C. Government programs that hire the unemployed lower the poverty rates. D. Lowering the bottom income tax rates encour ages spending. E. Low-interest government loans spur economic growth.
42. The popular nickname of President Ronald Reagan's space-based missile defense system was
A. SALT B. Dune C. Space Shield D. Skylab E. Star Wars
43. From 1863 to 1871, William Marcy Tweed was the powerful political boss of which of the following cities?
A. Boston B. New York City C. Washington, D.C. D. Philadelphia E. New Orleans
44. John C. Calhoun's view that the states had the right to refuse to obey any act of Congress they considered unconstitutional became known as the
A. doctrine of equal rights B. right of first refusal C. doctrine of nullification D. Carolina Plan E. Calhoun Compromise
45. The Federal Securities Act created which of the following in an effort to reform business and guard against another stock market crash?
A. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration B. The Civilian Conservation Corps C. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration D. The Securities and Exchange Commission E. The National Industrial Recovery Act
46. We fight not to enslave, but to set a country free, and to make room upon the earth for honest men to live in. The writer of the above statement was most likely referring to which of the following wars?
A. The Civil War B. The Vietnam War C. The War of 1812 D. World War II E. The Revolutionary War
47. The Eighteenth Amendment was passed primarily because of a crusade led by the
A. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People B. Women's Christian Temperance Movement C. Daughters of the American Revolution D. Mayflower Society E. International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union
48. In 1969, Native American activists occupied the abandoned prison on Alcatraz Island in order to protest all the following EXCEPT:
A. refusal of the U.S. and state government to honor treaty obligations B. discrimination against Native Americans by whites C. oppression of Native Americans by whites over three centuries D. refusal of the U.S. government to allow prof itable businesses to operate on Native American reservations E. marginalization of Native American culture by U.S. society
49. Which one of the following was NOT an important leader of organized labor?
A. George Pullman B. Eugene V. Debs C. Mary Harris Jones D. Samuel Gompers E. Terence V. Powderly
The chart and graphs above lend support to which of the following statements?
A. Only wealthy people could afford a college education before 1957. B. About 30 percent of all women in the United States were enrolled in college in 1957. C. The number of male college students declined during the 1950s. D. Thousands of colleges opened between 1957 and 1997. E. More men than women graduated from college in 1957.
51. In defiance of federal orders to desegregate Arkansas public schools, Governor Orval Faubus did all the following EXCEPT:
A. post the Arkansas National Guard at Little Rock High School to bar African-American students from entering B. close down the Little Rock public schools for the 1958-1959 school year C. petition the White House to overturn Brown v. Board of Education D. work with others to establish private, all-white schools in Little Rock E. speak out publicly against forced integration of Arkansas schools
52. Our diplomats and their advisers . . . lost sight of our tremendous stake in a non-Communist China .... This House must now assume the responsibility of preventing the onrushing tide of communism from engulfing all of Asia. The speaker probably issued this statement to the House of Representatives on the eve of which of the following?
A. Russo-Japanese War B. Korean War C. Persian Gulf War D. World War II E. Second Sino-Japanese War
53. Which of the following colonial actions provoked the British Parliament to pass the Intolerable Acts?
A. Signing of the Declaration of Independence B. Tarring and feathering of British agents sent to the colonies to distribute stamps C. Dumping chests of East India Tea into Boston harbor D. Convening of the Constitutional Convention E. Demanding that the governor of Massachusetts expel all British troops from Boston
54. Which of the following statements supports the theory that the Brooklyn Dodgers played an important role in the struggle for civil rights by hiring Jackie Robinson?
A. Negro League players made much less money than white major leaguers. B. Millions of fans saw and heard every day that Robinson played as well as or better than the white players. C. The Dodgers were one of three baseball teams in New York, the largest city in the United States. D. Robinson was named baseball's first rookie of the year in 1947. E. Robinson never responded to taunts, jeers, or death threats from racist baseball fans.
55. Which of the following Broadway musicals was the center of a series of court cases that established the tenet that the content of paid theatrical performances, no matter how offensive some might find it, is fully protected by the First Amendment?
A. Chicago B. Hair C. The Cradle Will Rock D. The Who's Tommy E. Oh, Calcutta!
56. President Abraham Lincoln considered it crucial to prevent Maryland from seceding from the Union primarily because
A. it surrounded Washington, D.C., on three sides B. it shared a long border with Pennsylvania C. it was the site of the Battles of Antietam and Fredericksburg D. it was home to John Wilkes Booth, Lincoln's assassin E. it contained the greatest number of factories of any Southern state
57. Which of the following best describes the effect of the Monroe Doctrine on world politics?
A. Great Britain became more actively involved in Canadian affairs. B. The United States was determined to take over Central and South America. C. Spain began to play an active role in a series of Latin American wars for independence. D. France began supporting Native Americans in their attempts to retake their ancestral lands from the U.S. government. E. It set the tone for U.S. foreign policy in the future.
58. The American Colonization Society was founded in the early 1800s primarily to
A. forcibly expel African Americans from the United States B. establish Native American reservations on good, fertile farming and hunting lands C. encourage residents of the Eastern states to settle the Great Plains and the Southwest D. help free African Americans resettle in northwestern Africa E. achieve immediate and universal abolition of slavery throughout the United States
59. Which of the following was founded in the aftermath of the Haymarket Riot of 1886?
A. Congress of Industrial Organizations B. Teamsters' Union C. American Railway Union D. American Federation of Labor E. Knights of Labor
60. Which of the following factors contributed most to California's decision to apply for statehood in 1850?
A. Increase in population as a result of the Gold Rush B. Democratic Party success in the California legislature C. Local insistence that California would be a slaveholding state D. Decision of Congress to build a transcontinen tal railroad E. Realization that the United States would soon be at war with Mexico
61. Many teenagers in the United States in the 1960s demanded that the voting age be lowered to 18 from 21 primarily because
A. they wanted the privilege of protesting against government policies B. they supported a political party that intended to overthrow the U.S. government C. they wanted to be able to vote to lower the legal drinking age D. they hoped to vote down a recent increase in income tax rates E. they felt that since they were old enough to fight and die in military service, they were old enough to vote
62. President Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction pro grams included all the following EXCEPT:
A. a blanket pardon to all Confederate soldiers B. the removal of Union troops of occupation from the South C. a requirement that Southern states abolish slavery D. annulment of old debts to the Confederate government E. full civil rights for all African Americans
63. The U.S. government encouraged the growth of settlement on the Great Plains in the mid-nineteenth century primarily by passing the
A. Homestead Act B. Pacific Railway Act C. Volstead Act D. Morrill Act E. Kansas-Nebraska Act
64. A "Horatio Alger" hero is a fictional character who symbolized which of the following to readers of the 1860s and 1870s?
A. The evil effects of gambling B. The ability to get rich by working one's way up from poor beginnings C. The value of social programs that helped working people D. The importance of acquiring a four-year college degree E. The importance of aristocratic family connec tions to those who want to succeed
65. Education reform during the late 1800s had all the following effects EXCEPT:
A. raising the literacy rate of people in the United States B. changing teaching methods in the public schools C. increasing the enrollment of students in all grade levels D. integrating the public schools by race E. founding more colleges and universities
66. The American Indian movement of the 1970s accomplished which of the following?
A. Took permanent control of the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs B. Recovered thousands of acres of ancestral tribal lands in Maine and New Mexico C. Won a lawsuit over an incident at Wounded Knee, South Dakota D. Burned a replica of the Pilgrim ship Mayflowerin Boston harbor E. Established the National Museum of the American Indian in New York City
67. All the following types of music were fused together to become jazz EXCEPT:
A. ragtime B. the blues C. spirituals D. hymns E. work songs
68. During the late 1800s newly arrived immigrants supported political machines primarily because
A. political machines offered them jobs and essential city services in exchange for their votes B. political machines committed fraud to get their candidates elected when necessary C. political machines received kickbacks from businesses D. political bosses were fellow immigrants E. political bosses supported the settlement-house movement and public education reform
69. The first shiploads of British colonists who settled on the Atlantic coast faced all the following problems EXCEPT:
A. hunger B. disease C. difficult winter weather D. implacable hostility of the Native Americans E. lack of essential supplies
The main point of the political cartoon above is that
A. the United States was founded by slaveholders such as George Washington B. Abraham Lincoln was a deeply religious man C. churches in the United States were hypocritical because seating was segregated by race D. Abraham Lincoln did not have a prayer of winning a series of debates with Stephen Dou glas E. no slaveholder could ever expect absolution for any sins he had committed
71. The British were the first Europeans to settle all the following colonies EXCEPT:
A. Rhode Island B. Connecticut C. New York D. Pennsylvania E. Virginia
72. The colonists took all the following actions in opposition to the Stamp Act EXCEPT:
A. tarring and feathering the stamp agents B. convening the Stamp Act Congress in New York City C. passing resolutions declaring the Stamp Act illegitimate D. boycotting British imports E. sending the Olive Branch Petition to Parliament
73. Which one of the following men spearheaded the religious revival known as the Great Awakening of the mid-1700s?
A. Benjamin Franklin B. William Penn C. Jonathan Edwards D. Edmund Andros E. Oliver Cromwell
74. Congress passed the National Recovery Act in 1933 to do all the following EXCEPT:
A. stabilize prices B. create jobs through public-works projects C. allow industries to regulate themselves D. raise wages E. enforce antitrust laws
75. Who pays the big election expenses of your con gressman ?... Do you imagine those who foot those huge bills are fools? Don't you know that they make sure of getting their money back, with interest? The speaker of the above quotation most likely supported which of the following?
A. Progressivism B. Prohibition C. Segregation D. Reconstruction E. Cronyism
76. All the following contributed to the decline of the Colored Farmers' Alliance EXCEPT:
A. racial divisions within the Alliance movement B. declining membership C. use of violence by white farmers against black workers D. failure of a cotton pickers' strike in 1891 E. expansion of the national money supply
77. All the following photographers created important visual records of aspects of U.S. history EXCEPT:
A. Jacob Riis B. Matthew Brady C. Dorothea Lange D. Jessie Tarbox Beals E. Ansel Adams
78. The Articles of Confederation did not provide a good basis for government primarily because
A. they established no legislative branch for the national government B. they gave the federal government no power to raise money from the states C. they put too much power in the hands of the federal judiciary D. they reserved no individual rights to the states of the Union E. they required a unanimous vote of all the states to pass any legislation
79. The Populist Party of the 1890s supported all the following EXCEPT:
A. a graduated income tax B. maintaining the gold standard C. bank regulation D. voting reform E. limits on immigration
80. Which of the following novelists wrote mainly about the social class whose lifestyle Thorstein Veblen described in 1899 as the embodiment of "conspicu ous consumption"?
A. Mark Twain B. J. D. Salinger C. Edith Wharton D. Jack London E. Ernest Hemingway
81. The Armory Show of 1913 was significant primarily because
A. it displayed the results of an explosion in a shingle factory B. it was the first major exhibition of modern art in the United States C. it was entirely under the control of the American Museum Association D. it convinced the public that European painters were better than U.S. painters E. it was a huge success with the critics and the public
82. President Lyndon B. Johnson became the national leader most responsible for ending racial segregation by taking all the following actions EXCEPT:
A. integrating the armed forces B. appointing Thurgood Marshall to the Supreme Court C. signing into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964 D. creating the Office of Economic Opportunity E. signing into law the Voting Rights Act of 1965
83. The French and Indian War resulted in all the following EXCEPT:
A. Colonists gained their first experience of organized military action. B. France ceded all territory east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans, to Britain. C. Seeds of distrust and resentment were sown between the British Army and the colonial volunteers. D. Britain accumulated an enormous war debt. E. Colonial legislatures voted to approve Ben Franklin's Albany Plan of Union.
The above cartoon urges the American colonies to support which of the following?
A. The Albany Plan of Union B. The Articles of Confederation C. The Declaration of Independence D. The Treaty of Paris E. The Constitution of the United States
85. Which of the following is a classic American novel of adolescent rebellion?
A. Moby-Dickby Herman Melville B. The Catcher in the Ryeby J. D. Salinger C. To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee D. My ántonia by Willa Cather E. The Moon Is Down by John Steinbeck
86. All the following combined to help form the Free Soil Party in 1848 EXCEPT:
A. farmers B. land reformers C. industrial workers D. abolitionists E. Southern conservatives
87. Which of the following resulted when the workers at the Carnegie Steel Company of Homestead, PA, went on strike in 1892?
A. Eugene Debs made a public speech expressing support for the strikers. B. The company had the union leaders arrested for theft. C. Strikers achieved their goal of higher wages. D. Andrew Carnegie resigned as chairman of U.S. Steel. E. Management locked the workers out of the plant.
88. Rather than trying to climb the economic ladder, people are becoming more concerned with relation ships and family and community involvement. The speaker of the above quotation is most likely commenting on the passage into law of which of the following?
A. Family and Medical Leave Act B. North American Free Trade Agreement C. Immigration Act D. Operation Restore Hope E. Contract with America
89. Mr. Rockefeller has systematically played with loaded dice. . . . Business played in this way loses all its sportsmanlike qualities. It is fit only for tricksters. The above statement most likely was made by which of the following muckraking journalists in which exposé?
A. Ida M. Tarbell, History of the Standard Oil Company B. Lincoln Steffens, Tweed Days in St. Louis C. Theodore Dreiser, The Financier D. Ray Stannard Baker, Following the Color Line E. Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
90. Which of the following African-American leaders wroteUp From Slavery?
A. Malcolm X B. Frederick Douglass C. Ida B. Wells-Barnett D. Booker T. Washington E. Medgar Evers
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