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1. Women who opposed passage of the Equal Rights Amendment did so primarily because
A. they believed that women do not deserve the same rights as men B. they did not want to lose certain privileges, such as exemption from the military draft C. they felt that it would destroy women's role in the home D. they thought it was best to fight for equality on a local level E. they did not want to lose any of the rights for which they had fought for so many decades
2. Which of the following granted all African-American men the right to vote?
A. The Emancipation Proclamation B. The Reconstruction Acts C. The Freedmen's Bureau D. The Fifteenth Amendment E. The Enforcement Acts
3. Which of the following administrations authorized continued financial aid to the Nicaraguan Contras in defiance of congressional laws against it?
A. Gerald Ford B. Jimmy Carter C. Ronald Reagan D. George H. W. Bush E. George W. Bush
4. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 specified which of the following?
A. The federal government would sell land in the Northwest Territory on credit. B. The Northwest Territory was divided into townships and lots that were sold to the public. C. Any precious metals discovered in the Northwest Territory were the property of the federal government. D. Only Native Americans were entitled to live in the Northwest Territory. E. When a section of the Northwest Territory had a large enough population, it could draft a constitution and apply for statehood.
5. Eleanor Roosevelt accomplished all the following EXCEPT:
A. writing a daily newspaper column B. holding the post of special ambassador to the United Nations C. visiting soldiers in dangerous combat zones such as Guadalcanal D. taking a public stand in favor of civil rights for African Americans E. founding the National Organization for Women
6. In the aftermath of World War I, President Woodrow Wilson
A. urged U.S. neutrality toward European nations B. fought for the establishment of the League of Nations C. signed the Balfour Declaration with Great Britain D. participated in a peace conference in Berlin E. vetoed the Espionage and Sedition Acts
7. Hillary Rodham Clinton is the first first lady to do which of the following?
A. Hold elected political office B. Publish an autobiography C. Fight for education and health-care reform D. Get a college education E. Restore and redecorate public rooms in the White House
8. The Black Codes of the late 1860s had which of the following purposes?
A. To restore the status quo of Southern society before the Civil War B. To enforce freedmen's right to vote C. To allow African Americans to hold elected office D. To intimidate Democrats into staying away from the polls E. To nullify the Secession Acts of 1860 and 1861
9. During the mid-1800s farmers faced all the following problems EXCEPT:
A. The supply of crops exceeded the demand for them. B. They incurred debt from purchases of land or equipment. C. The prices of crops had fallen. D. There were no protective tariffs on imported crops. E. The Grange and Alliance movements prevented them from organizing.
10. Strikes led by members of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union had all the following effects EXCEPT:
A. Employers agreed to raise wages. B. Employers agreed to shorten the workweek. C. Employers agreed to a closed shop. D. Union membership rose by the tens of thousands. E. Many African American women joined the strikers.
11. Theodore Roosevelt began his presidency with all the following goals EXCEPT:
A. fighting rigid class distinctions in U.S. society B. speaking his mind on important issues of the day C. forcing corporations to serve the public good D. overseeing ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment on woman suffrage E. fighting unethical and illegal conduct in big businesses
12. Which of the following does NOT characterize the Clinton administrations of the 1990s?
A. Economic prosperity B. Federal budget surpluses C. Low unemployment rates D. Passage of important social legislation E. Strained relations with foreign allies
13. American Tories remained loyal to Great Britain during the Revolutionary War for all the following reasons EXCEPT:
A. belief that it was immoral to turn against a hereditary monarch B. desire to protect the power and wealth they enjoyed as British subjects C. personal loyalty to King George III D. unwillingness to commit what they believed was treason by taking up arms against Britain E. belief that the various acts of Parliament were neither onerous nor oppressive
14. All the following factors led to the decline and fall of the Industrial Workers of the World EXCEPT:
A. the failure of several labor strikes B. people's fear of the IWW's methods and goals C. refusal of employers to accept an open shop D. a government crackdown on union activity E. conflict within the IWW leadership
15. Europeans explored and colonized the "New World" for all the following motives EXCEPT:
A. desire for religious and political freedom B. expansion of European-based empires C. discovery of the Northwest Passage D. greed for gold, treasure, and natural resources E. assimilation into New World cultures
16. Which of the following was NOT a prominent protest group during the civil rights era?
A. Southern Christian Leadership Conference B. Fair Employment Practices Committee C. Montgomery Improvement Association D. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee E. Congress of Racial Equality
17. American pop music of the 1960s was characterized by all the following EXCEPT:
A. song lyrics with political messages B. use of electrically amplified instruments C. a new link between rock and folk music D. a rise in the popularity of big bands E. song lyrics that protested against "the establishment"
18. We are people of this generation, bred in at least modest comfort, housed now in universities, looking uncomfortably to the world we inherit. The author of the above quotation most likely would have supported which of the following movements?
A. Counterculture B. Labor C. Temperance D. Religious revival E. Feminist
19. The Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 was called primarily to
A. integrate U.S. society along race, gender, and class lines B. declare that women and men should have equal rights C. revise the Declaration of Independence D. force the president of the United States to grant women the right to vote E. do away with the economic system based on owning private property
20. All the following authors were considered members of the nineteenth-century Transcendentalist commu nity EXCEPT:
A. Bronson Alcott B. Ralph Waldo Emerson C. Margaret Fuller D. Henry David Thoreau E. Emily Dickinson
21. Henry Clay's American System called for all the following EXCEPT:
A. a national bank B. protective tariffs C. a national transportation system D. a sound national currency E. a free-trade agreement with Great Britain
The heavy line on the map shows
A. the Pony Express B. the Erie Canal C. the Cumberland Road D. the Trail of Tears E. the Appalachian Trail
23. Which one of the following men did NOT play a key role in the U.S. military during the Revolutionary War?
A. Benedict Arnold B. Ethan Allen C. Samuel Adams D. George Rogers Clark E. Nathaniel Greene
24. The Japanese Internment of World War II was focused primarily on Japanese-Americans who resided in the following state:
A. Florida B. California C. New York D. Illinois E. Michigan
25. Demobilization after World War I had all the follow ing effects on the economy EXCEPT:
A. Factories cut back production and dismissed workers. B. Crop prices fell to new lows. C. Prices of consumer goods went up. D. Women were pressured into giving up their jobs to men. E. Employment rates rose as veterans returned to the workforce.
26. During the 1920s African Americans migrated to the North primarily to
A. join the NAACP B. escape violence and oppression C. organize unions for African-American laborers D. take jobs on cattle ranches or acquire homesteads E. take part in major protests against racial discrimination
27. This bill will destroy our common life and will rob us of everything which we hold dear-our lands, our customs, our traditions. The speaker of the above quotation most likely was referring to which of the following?
A. The Bursum Bill B. The Taft-Hartley Act C. The Sherman Antitrust Act D. The Immigration Act E. The Equal Rights Amendment
28. All the following were Union generals during the Civil War EXCEPT:
A. William Tecumseh Sherman B. Ambrose Burnside C. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson D. Ulysses S. Grant E. George McClellan
29. The GI Bill of Rights gave millions of veterans the opportunity to
A. get a college education B. join a branch of the armed forces C. refuse combat duty D. move to Canada E. be given a fair trial if court-martialed
30. All the following were parts of the Anaconda Plan in the Civil War EXCEPT:
A. a Union blockade of Confederate ports B. a siege of Richmond by federal troops C. a campaign to destroy Southern railroads and industries D. cutting the South in half by seizing the Mississippi E. assaulting coastal ports to seize trading vessels
31. Theodore Roosevelt's "Square Deal" called for all the following EXCEPT:
A. limiting the power of trusts B. enacting cuts in personal income taxes C. promoting public health and safety D. improving working conditions for the laboring class E. balancing the interests of big business, consumers, and labor
32. Which of the following novels is a literary icon of the Jazz Age?
A. The Troll Gardenby Willa Cather B. The Great Gatsbyby F. Scott Fitzgerald C. The House of Mirth by Edith Wharton D. Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck E. The Portrait of a Lady by Henry James
33. In Powell v. Alabama, the Supreme Court revoked the death sentences of the "Scottsboro boys" on the grounds that
A. the police had forced the defendants to confess their guilt B. the defendants had been denied the right to a trial by jury C. the defendants had alibis from eyewitnesses who had not been allowed to testify D. the defendants had been denied the right to due process E. the defendants had been framed for crimes committed by other people
34. For what did you throw off the yoke of Britain and call yourselves independent? Was it from a disposi tion fond of change, or to procure new masters ?... This new form of national government . . . will be dangerous to your liberty and happiness. The speaker of the above quotation was most likely a member of which group?
A. Federalists B. Sons of Liberty C. Democrats D. Antifederalists E. Tories
35. All the following were New Deal programs EXCEPT:
A. Civil Works Administration B. Reconstruction Finance Corporation C. National Labor Relations Act D. Farm Security Administration E. Federal Housing Administration
36. Which of the following was a leader of Sioux resist ance in the 1870s?
A. Chief Joseph B. Geronimo C. Squanto D. Sitting Bull E. Powhatan
37. The eastern half of which present-day state was called "Indian Territory" until 1907?
A. Nebraska B. Kansas C. Oklahoma D. Colorado E. Arizona
38. Nativists took all the following steps to protest immigration EXCEPT:
A. committing violence against immigrants B. vandalizing Catholic churches because they were centers of immigrant neighborhoods C. forming a political party to support restrictions on immigration D. lynching immigrants and blaming African Americans for the crimes E. electing many state and local officials who discriminated against immigrants
39. Before 1800, most immigrants to the United States were
A. Mexican B. British C. Dutch D. German E. Chinese
40. The United States acquired the last of the territory that would make up the contiguous United States during which decade?
A. 1770s B. 1800s C. 1840s D. 1850s E. 1950s
41. Between 1830 and 1860, the majority of European immigrants to the United States were from
A. France and Hungary B. Belgium and Switzerland C. Italy and Spain D. Ireland and Germany E. Russia and Greece
42. Which section of Article VI of the Constitution states that when federal and state laws come into conflict with each other, ultimate authority is given to federal laws?
A. Eminent domain B. Supremacy clause C. Public domain D. Sovereignty clause E. Elastic clause
43. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 stated that
A. all East Indian immigrants were to be deported B. burial grounds would be established for Native Americans killed in conflict with federal troops C. all Native American images would be removed from public display D. Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River would be relocated E. all government officials of Native American ancestry would be dismissed from their posts
The shaded area on the map above represents
A. the Gadsden Purchase B. the Louisiana Purchase C. the Confederate States of America D. the Mexican Cession E. Indian Territory
45. William Jennings Bryan's "Cross of Gold" speech at the Democratic Convention of 1896 proposed which of the following?
A. That the United States maintain the gold standard B. That a cross of gold be erected on the White House lawn C. That silver be coined to inflate the U.S. currency D. That churches pay income taxes to aid the poor E. That the United States sell gold to foreign investors
46. Cesar Chavez became prominent in the 1960s as
A. the speaker of the house in Texas B. a bilingual television host in California C. the head of an organization that promoted Hispanic boxers D. the leader of the United Farm Workers E. the first Hispanic mayor of a U.S. city
47. The first President of the Independent Republic of Texas was
A. Sam Houston B. Walter Dallas C. Stephen F. Austin D. Jim Bowie E. Dallas Green
48. All the following innovations were a direct result of the growth of U.S. cities from 1865 to 1900 EXCEPT:
A. the elevator B. the skyscraper C. the automobile D. trolley cars E. steel frame construction
49. One of the best ways to cope with (fear), is to turn it around and put it out to others . . . if you are afraid of the dark, you put the audience in a dark theater. I had a great fear of the ocean. This quotation most likely describes which of the following blockbuster American films?
A. Gone With the Wind B. Star Wars C. Jaws D. The Sound of Music E. The Wizard of Oz
50. Which of the following made New York the first state to grant women the right to own property?
A. The Nineteenth Amendment, 1920 B. The Married Women's Property Act, 1848 C. The Emancipation Proclamation, 1863 D. The Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments, 1848 E. The Fourteenth Amendment, 1868
51. Which of the following helped make the Second Great Awakening a success?
A. The growth of Lutheranism B. Early German immigration C. The preaching of Jonathan Edwards D. A decline in Protestant denominations E. Circuit riders, or itinerant ministers
52. Which of the following is a nickname for the gener ation born between 1945 and 1965?
A. The lost generation B. The beat generation C. The baby boom generation D. The peace generation E. Generation X
53. Which of the following is a broad program created by Martin Luther King, Jr., to confront the issues of U.S. economic inequalilty and poverty regardless of race.
A. The Poor People's Campaign B. The March on Washington C. Affirmative action D. Black power E. War on Poverty
54. Which of the 13 British colonies was founded on the southern frontier of British North America to provide a fresh start for debtors?
A. South Carolina B. Virginia C. Florida D. Georgia E. North Carolina
55. Pickett's Charge became the turning point for the Union against the Confederacy in which of the following Civil War battles?
A. Chancellorsville B. Gettysburg C. Antietam D. Vicksburg E. Second Bull Run
56. During the 1860s and 1870s federal troops repeat edly clashed with Native Americans in which of the following regions?
A. Northeast B. Great Lakes C. Southeast D. Mississippi Valley E. Great Plains
57. Which of the following proposed a 1930s relief program in which money would be taken from the wealthy and given to the poor?
A. Harold Ickes B. Huey Long C. John Nance Garner D. Alf Landon E. Father Charles Coughlin
58. Mary Boykin Chesnut is best known for which of the following?
A. Writing a diary that documents home life on the plantation during the Civil War B. Acting as a spy, passing secret troop placements to the Union C. Writing newspaper editorials opposing the Confederacy D. Running for the Senate in 1864 E. Harboring runaway slaves in South Carolina
59. Which group opposed ratification of the Constitution because its members feared a powerful national government?
A. Whigs B. Continentalists C. Tories D. Democratic-Republicans E. Antifederalists
60. Which of the following leaders did NOT sign the Treaty of Versailles, ending World War I?
A. Woodrow Wilson B. Georges Clemenceau C. Vittorio Orlando D. Henry Cabot Lodge E. David Lloyd George
61. The active colonial protest group called Sons of Lib erty first organized in which of the following cities?
A. Philadelphia B. New York C. Boston D. Williamsburg E. Charleston
62. Powers shared by the federal and state governments are called
A. concurrent powers B. sovereign powers C. bicameral powers D. reduced powers E. federal powers
63. The first election in which the Twenty-Sixth Amend ment (allowing 18-year olds to vote) was in effect was held in
A. 1948B. 1964C. 1972D. 1976E. 1980
64. The term "planned obsolescence" refers to which of the following?
A. The practice of letting a contract expire B. An urban planning strategy designed to rebuild neighborhoods on a timed schedule C. The business practice of manufacturing products specifically designed to go out of style and be replaced by new models D. A temporary construction site E. The government system for maturing savings bonds
65. The skyscraper boom in U.S. cities was facilitated by Elisha Otis's development of
A. the revolving door B. the elevator C. the telephone D. refrigeration E. the lightbulb
66. Which of the following Eastern tribes was NOT a member of the Iroquois League?
A. Seneca B. Mohawk C. Onondaga D. Delaware E. Cayuga
67. Which prominent U.S. inventor was known as "the Wizard of Menlo Park"?
A. Albert Einstein B. Alexander Graham Bell C. Henry Ford D. Tobias Fuller E. Thomas Edison
68. All the following statements support the theory that the West was developed by big business, big government, and technology EXCEPT:
A. The government gave away land to anyone who would claim it, live on it, and farm it. B. The railroad companies brought thousands of Chinese immigrants to the West. C. The U.S. Army protected the settlers and evicted Native Americans. D. The railroad made it possible to transport necessary supplies to pioneer farmers in rural areas. E. Farmers had no national association to which they could apply for help.
69. The phrase "Great White Hope" refers to which of the following?
A. Babe Ruth, whose home run hitting restored faith in baseball after the Black Sox scandal of 1919 B. Boston Celtics basketball star Larry Bird C. The women's gymnastics team at the 1980 Olympic Games D. A white boxer good enough to defeat Jack Johnson, world heavyweight champion in 1908 E. Swedish tennis champion Bjorn Borg
70. All the following factors combined to cause the United States to declare war on Great Britain in 1812 EXCEPT:
A. U.S. desire to acquire Canada and Florida B. bumbling policies of President James Madison C. impressment of U.S. sailors into the British Navy D. British alliance with and support of Native American tribes E. U.S. purchase of New France, later called the Louisiana Territory
71. In 1837 Horace Mann worked for all the following publicschool reforms in Massachusetts EXCEPT:
A. raising teacher salaries B. pressuring the legislature to increase funding for schools C. opening the nation's first public high schools D. starting teacher training schools E. updating the curriculum
72. Some historians date the start of the Civil War to April 1861 when
A. John Brown led a raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry B. South Carolina seceded from the United States C. Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter, South Carolina D. President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation E. Union troops laid siege to Richmond, Virginia
73. The primary cause of the market revolution of the early 1800s was
A. the creation of a national bank B. the building of national roads and canals C. the abandonment of the gold standard D. the development of refrigeration E. the signing of an international trade agreement
74. The Voting Rights Act of 1975 stated which of the following?
A. Young people between the ages of 18 and 21 had the right to vote. B. People must register with a political party in order to vote. C. Resident aliens could vote in local elections. D. People did not have to reveal which candidates they voted for. E. Voting materials must be made available in a variety of languages.
75. The party reached out mostly to men, to young, black urban men who were on the streets, who knew that there were no options somewhere in their lives. The speaker of the above quotation most likely is referring to which of the following?
A. The Black Panther Party B. The civil rights movement C. The Reform Party D. The Urban League E. The Socialist Party
76. Which of the following was NOT a U.S. victory in the Pacific in World War II?
A. The attack on Guadalcanal B. The Battle of the Coral Sea C. The Battle of the Bulge D. The Battle of Midway E. The Battle of Leyte Gulf
77. Congress passed the War Powers Act primarily because
A. Presidents Johnson and Nixon had usurped congressional authority in making war on Vietnam B. the United States had not achieved a clear victory in Vietnam C. the Vietnam War had been unpopular with the voters from the beginning D. Congress believed that only the president should have the power to declare war E. the public wanted to end the military draft and replace it with an all-volunteer army
78. The U.S. Department of Agriculture was created primarily to assist which of the following?
A. tenant farmers who were forced off their land during the Dust Bowl era B. former slaves who wanted to acquire homesteads in the West C. miners who fought against unsafe working conditions D. struggling farmers on the Great Plains E. ranchers who wanted to import a healthier breed of cattle
79. The Atlantic Charter, signed by the United States and Great Britain in 1941, stated all the following EXCEPT:
A. Aggressor nations would be disarmed after the end of the war. B. All nations had the right to choose their own form of government. C. All nations should have equal and free access to international trade. D. The United States and Great Britain would not expand their territory. E. Germany would be split into two nations at the end of the war.
80. I didn't want to believe it at first-people protest ing against us when we were putting our lives on the line for our country. The speaker of the above quotation is most likely a veteran of the
A. Korean War B. Vietnam War C. Persian Gulf War D. invasion of Afghanistan E. war in Iraq
81. All the following are major photojournalists of the Great Depression EXCEPT:
A. Margaret Bourke-White B. Walker Evans C. Althea Gibson D. Dorothea Lange E. Gordon Parks
82. The first U.S. school where women and African Americans, as well as men, could earn a four-year college degree was
A. Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio B. Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania C. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts D. Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut E. The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
83. Which of the following works of the American the ater explicitly compares McCarthyism to the Puritan "witch hunts" of Salem, Massachusetts?
A. A Man for All Seasons by Robert Bolt B. The Crucibleby Arthur Miller C. Strange Interludeby Eugene O'Neill D. Angels in Americaby Tony Kushner E. Assassins by Stephen Sondheim
84. Samuel Colt's revolver, which was patented in the United States in 1836, revolutionized armed combat because of which of the following innovations?
A. It did not have to be taken apart during reloading. B. It could be used as either a firing weapon or a bayonet. C. It had sights along the barrel that improved accuracy. D. It could be fired six times before being reloaded. E. It enabled the soldier to shoot from a greater distance.
85. Which of the following machines, invented in 1793, was primarily responsible for an economic boom in the South?
A. Eli Whitney's cotton gin B. Robert Fulton's steam engine C. Henry Bessemer's steel converter D. John Deere's tractor E. Edwin L. Drake's oil drill
86. The Great Migration took place during which of the following decades?
A. 1920s B. 1850s C. 1890s D. 1960s E. 1990s
87. The growth of the railroad industry in the 1870s stimulated all the following EXCEPT:
A. settlement of Western states B. growth in the steel industry C. expansion of markets for trade and sales D. high employment rates E. development of the automobile
88. James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay were all
A. members of President George Washington's cabinet B. signers of the Declaration of Independence C. authors of the Federalist Papers D. prominent Antifederalists E. heroes of Revolutionary War battles
89. All the following characterize the Native American literary tradition EXCEPT:
A. trickster tales B. creation stories C. fables featuring animal characters D. tales based on the sacred books of Native American religion E. stories passed down orally over generations
90. During the 1770s punitive Acts of Parliament were aimed primarily at Massachusetts because
A. Massachusetts's governor was a member of the Sons of Liberty B. Bostonians had provoked the Boston Massacre and had held the Boston Tea Party C. the stamp agent for Massachusetts had been attacked and thrown out of town D. the Massachusetts legislature had abolished slavery throughout the colony E. the people of Massachusetts did not believe in the separation of church and state
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