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1. The Mauryan emperor Ashoka's reign was characterized by
A. honest proclamations and positive behaviorB. incessant warfare and brutality toward citizensC. oppressive and ascetic totalitarian governmentD. construction of expansive monuments and buildingsE. drastic rejection of Buddhist principles
2. Socialists such as Friedrich Engels argued that
A. society is necessary to protect individuals from the chaotic brutality inherent to human natureB. governments can be truly just only when they directly represent the people under their ruleC. nations must compete for power and fortune just as animals compete for supremacy in natureD. financial wealth and resources should be distributed evenly among the citizens of a nationE. every citizen has a duty to devote his or her life to the betterment of the nation or culture
In the map shown, the dotted line approximates the path of
A. the Spanish silver tradeB. Portuguese colonizationC. the Cortés conquest of the AztecD. Mayan expansionismE. the Pizarro conquest of the Inca
4. Which of these describes Hammurabi's most significant contribution to civilization?
A. The defeat and destruction of Assyrian invasion armies around 675 BCEB. A precedent of peaceful negotiations with the rulers of Southwest AsiaC. The ushering of Egypt into the period known as the Old KingdomD. The design and construction of the legendary Hanging Gardens of BabylonE. A comprehensive system of laws by which a kingdom could be governed
5. What was Sigmund Freud's intent with his breakthrough publication Die Traumdeutung?
A. Reconciling taboo desiresB. Interpreting the meaning of dreamsC. Exploring societal and gender rolesD. Debunking theories of hypnosisE. Treating emotional hysteria
6. The nomadic practices of the Mongols proved MOST beneficial to the conquering of other peoples in that these practices
A. helped the Mongols to amass great stores of riches, food, and weaponsB. encouraged toughness and endurance among the MongolsC. improved Mongol horsemanship and mobility and allowed them to strike quicklyD. enhanced the Mongols' ability to survive in different environmentsE. served to increase the Mongol population and its armies
7. The Green Revolution was important in modern times because it
A. raised global support for environmental preservation initiativesB. encouraged the development and use of renewable energy sourcesC. aggressively advocated for equal rights for women and childrenD. brought greater political stability to the nations of Eastern EuropeE. increased crop yields to combat starvation in developing nations
8. Which event marked the first year in the Muslim calendar?
A. Muhammad completed the Koran.B. Muhammad was born.C. Muhammad joined a caravan to Syria.D. Muhammad died.E. Muhammad journeyed from Mecca to Medina.
Which of these is symbolically represented by the sculpture of a mother wolf feeding two children?
A. Founding of the city of RomeB. Greek dominance of the ancient worldC. Myths of the demigod HerculesD. Importance of ancient philosophyE. Rise of neoclassicism in Europe
10. The South African policy of apartheid was specifically designed to
A. prevent the spread of communism into the regionB. limit foreign influence on internal political mattersC. encourage trade with Europe and the AmericasD. ensure Afrikaners political dominance of the countryE. stabilize the nation in its early years of independence
11. Which modern fields have been most affected by the accomplishments of the ancient Greeks and Romans?
A. Ethics and religionB. Medicine and hygieneC. Politics and governmentD. Finances and tradeE. Science and technology
12. In European history, the term Lebensraum, or "living space," most commonly refers to the
A. German desire for expansion in the twentieth centuryB. forced relocation of ethnic minorities into ghetto townsC. rejection of industrialization and urbanizationD. celebration of the bucolic ideal in art and literatureE. immigration to North America in the twentieth century
13. Conflicts between which two religions resulted in the Edict of Nantes (1598)?
A. Jainism and IslamB. Calvinism and LutheranismC. Roman Catholicism and ProtestantismD. Hinduism and BuddhismE. Sikhism and Orthodox Judaism
14. What was the primary motivation for most Irish citizens who immigrated to North America in the nineteenth century?
A. Find freedom of religionB. Locate support for Irish independenceC. Escape national famineD. Avoid conscription in the British armyE. Protest British imperialism
15. In the Hindu caste system, members of the Shudra caste originally served as
A. servants and workersB. kings and noblesC. traders and merchantsD. soldiers and courtiersE. priests and teachers
16. The Olmec civilization occupied the modern-day lands known as
A. Baja California PeninsulaB. Western Mexico's Pacific CoastC. Guatemala and Northern BelizeD. Southern Mexico's Gulf CoastE. Amazon basin and rainforest
17. "Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of war, where every man is enemy to every man, the same consequent to the time wherein men live without other security than what their own strength and their own invention shall furnish them withal. In such condition there is…continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
The above statement expresses the views of which historical figure?
A. Thomas HobbesB. John CalvinC. Jean-Jacques RousseauD. Niccolò MachiavelliE. Thomas Aquinas
18. Japan underwent change during the Meiji Restoration that most closely resembled change in
A. Persia under the rule of the HephthalitesB. Russia during the reign of Czar Peter IC. Judea under Roman occupationD. Sri Lanka prior to British colonizationE. France during the Revolutionary era
19. The Duma, active in Russia from 1906 to 1917, can BEST be described as a/an
A. revolutionary secret societyB. anticommunist political partyC. elected legislative bodyD. secret government police forceE. union of industrial workers
20. The Byzantine Empire collapsed after more than one thousand years in existence primarily because of the
A. ascension of Frederick III to Holy Roman Emperor in 1452B. Great Schism that began around 1378C. Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453D. end of Russian tributes to the Golden Horde in 1462E. French victories that ended the Hundred Years' War in 1453
21. Books such as George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four and Aldous Huxley's Brave New World are major twentieth-century examples of what literary form?
A. TragicomedyB. Satirical fictionC. Epistolary fictionD. Dystopian novelE. Feminist novel
22. The practice of offshoring by industrialized countries in the twentieth century generally values all of the following EXCEPT
A. increased availability of raw materialsB. domestic economic developmentC. reduction of overall business costsD. overall lowering of labor costsE. less stringent labor and environmental laws
23. The introduction of agriculture most significantly affected formerly nomadic societies by
A. creating a gender-based separation of responsibilitiesB. increasing the density of the populationC. necessitating the frequent migration of humansD. decreasing the chance of food surplusesE. eradicating the traditional specialization of labor
24. Which country claimed the colony of Madagascar as a possession until an ongoing freedom movement led to its independence in 1960?
A. FranceB. GermanyC. United StatesD. PortugalE. Britain
25. When issued in 1215, the Magna Carta established the legal principle of
A. due process of lawB. burden of proofC. statute of limitationsD. judicial deferenceE. sovereign immunity
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