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1. Which religion developed in India alongside Buddhism around the sixth century BCE in response to religious speculation over Hinduism?
A. JainismB. RastafarianismC. ShintoismD. SikhismE. Zoroastrianism
2. In the Paraguayan War beginning in 1864, Paraguay fought against the combined forces of
A. Spanish and British colonizersB. Uruguay, Argentina, and BrazilC. Chile, Peru, and BoliviaD. Peru and British colonizersE. Bolivia and Spanish colonizers
3. In what year were Upper and Lower Canada united?
A. 1755B. 1776C. 1813D. 1841E. 1913
4. The medieval African empire of Ghana thrived because of its intermediary position between the
A. intellectuals of Europe and AfricaB. traders of salt and traders of gold and ivoryC. Silk Roads and the spice routesD. fishing towns and agricultural communitiesE. Christian and Muslim settlements
5. The Chinese imperial palace used by rulers from the Ming through the Qing dynasties was known as the
A. Forbidden CityB. WumenC. Potala PalaceD. XanaduE. Outer City
6. The ziggurats of ancient Mesopotamia most closely resembled the
A. Vedas of the AryansB. pyramids of the EgyptiansC. aqueducts of the RomansD. pueblos of the Native AmericansE. pagodas of the Chinese
7. A twentieth-century territorial dispute over control of the province of Kashmir resulted in conflict between India and
A. RussiaB. ChinaC. PakistanD. JapanE. Bangladesh
8. Which of these was NOT true of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt?
A. They owned most of the kingdom's land.B. They were said to become divine after death.C. They typically delegated duties to viziers.D. They were required to be male.E. They were believed to control nature.
9. The opium trade between Britain and China arose primarily due to
A. lack of Japanese participation in tradeB. European interest in trading with ChinaC. the belief that opium was medicinally beneficialD. Chinese desire for European manufactured itemsE. the increasing scarcity of natural resources in Europe
10. How was the Great Schism in Roman Catholicism resolved in the fifteenth century?
A. Church electors installed a second and third pope.B. The Council of Constance chose to recall popes.C. Scholars translated the Bible into vernacular English.D. Scholasticism changed belief systems in Europe.E. The papacy temporarily relocated to Avignon in France.
11. The theology of Judaism MOST differed from other early religions due to its belief in
A. monotheismB. GnosticismC. nihilismD. divine right of monarchsE. religious rites and rituals
12. What was the primary difference between the artistic movements of romanticism and classicism?
A. Romanticism alluded to the art and thought of ancient civilizations.B. Romanticism stressed the importance of feelings and emotions.C. Classicism was inspired by the forms and essences of nature.D. Romanticism was founded on principles of reason and rationale.E. Classicism rejected science and symmetry in its compositions.
13. Which of these was an important virtue in Daoism?
A. Focusing on secular advancementB. Fostering community-mindednessC. Separating spirituality from cultureD. Adhering to strict moral dutiesE. Eliminating all earthly desires
14. The Rosetta stone was important in
A. understanding currency and trade rates in ancient North AfricaB. deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics using Greek translationsC. tracing the milestones of Roman occupation in Southwest AsiaD. translating written inscriptions in the Linear A and B formsE. providing a written record of the laws of ancient Mesopotamia
15. Pope Benedict VIII made a lasting change to Roman Catholic doctrine in 1022 when he passed a declaration that
A. instituted a celibacy requirement for clergyB. forbade the sale of indulgences to laymenC. instituted the practice of selling church officesD. forbade the use of torture during inquisitionsE. instituted the practice of electing multiple popes
16. Which ancient civilization most likely pioneered the production and use of iron around 2500 BCE?
A. PersiansB. HebrewsC. HittitesD. BabyloniansE. Sumerians
17. The individual political struggles of Nelson Mandela and Mahatma Gandhi were MOST similar in that they
A. worked to secure the independence of their nations from colonial ruleB. fought against oppressive governments that encouraged racismC. eventually became high-ranking officials in their governmentsD. protested injustice through prolonged hunger strikesE. founded militant revolutionary organizations
18. By the year 1100 CE, the strongest Norman influence was felt in which modern regions?
A. Norway, Sweden, and EnglandB. Africa and the MediterraneanC. Russia and the Baltic regionD. Germany, Austria, and ItalyE. England, Italy, and France
19. The Paleolithic Era was distinguished by the use of stone tools, while the Neolithic Era was distinguished by
A. metalworking capabilitiesB. cavalry as part of warfareC. advanced architectural constructionD. advances in agricultureE. marked empire building
20. The medieval cities of Venice, Italy, and Tenochtitlán, Mexico, were MOST similar in that they
A. hosted populations of about 400,000 citizensB. served as major seaports for international tradeC. were sacked by invaders in the sixteenth centuryD. prospered because of their industrial capacitiesE. were constructed on top of islands
21. Which of these is the BEST example of the practice known as total war?
A. Extension of armed conflict beyond traditional land battles into the sea and airB. Use of extensive espionage and reconnaissance networks within enemy territoryC. Use of cutting-edge technology and propaganda to influence public sentimentsD. Bombing of civilian centers to destroy an enemy's ability to continue fightingE. Inability to end a conflict without the complete destruction of the enemy's army
22. "Respectfulness, without the rules of propriety, becomes laborious bustle; carefulness, without the rules of propriety, becomes timidity; boldness, without the rules of propriety, becomes insubordination; straightforwardness, without the rules of propriety, becomes rudeness."
The above excerpt expresses the viewpoint of
A. MachiavelliB. SocratesC. ErasmusD. ConfuciusE. Lao Tzu
23. Which of these statements about the practice of slavery in ancient and medieval civilizations is NOT true?
A. Slavery was rarely pursued among hunter-gatherer populations.B. Enslaved people were put to work in a wide variety of occupations.C. Slavery existed within Africa before European colonization.D. Enslaved people were important to ancient Greece and Rome.E. Enslaved people were almost exclusively black Africans.
In the map shown, the numbered dots correspond to cities. Which cities most closely represent the East-West limits of the territories conquered or controlled by Alexander the Great?
A. 1 and 6B. 1 and 7C. 2 and 6D. 2 and 7E. 3 and 7
25. The main goal of the 1848 meeting among liberal leaders in Frankfurt am Main was to
A. destroy the autonomy of the German statesB. win political favors from German princesC. abolish the system of hereditary monarchyD. promote the unification of German statesE. overthrow Frederick William of Prussia
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