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1. Which of these BEST describes the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks in early-twentieth-century Russia?
A. The Mensheviks believed in working with the bourgeois, while the Bolsheviks believed in immediate revolution against them.B. The Mensheviks supported an elitist political system, while the Bolsheviks supported a more inclusionary approach.C. The Mensheviks favored an altered form of Marxism, while the Bolsheviks favored pure Marxism.D. The Mensheviks were a proactively radical political group, while the Bolsheviks were comparatively reactionary in approach.E. The Mensheviks supported Russia's involvement in World War I, while the Bolsheviks were against it.
2. In the mid-1800s, the southeastern port of Singapore was controlled by the
A. DutchB. FrenchC. GermansD. BritishE. United States
3. The campaign for Mexican independence from Spain was different from other political revolts in the Americas in that it was
A. diplomatic in nature and did not involve violenceB. ultimately decided by events in EuropeC. started by mestizos instead of the Creole classD. undertaken to install a new monarchyE. conducted with the help of other nearby countries
4. The signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas served to
A. end hostilities in the Spanish Civil War and affirm nationalist controlB. grant Spain exclusive rights to all land discovered in the New WorldC. free the colony of Brazil from Spanish imperial governanceD. formally and permanently abolish the Spanish InquisitionE. establish a trade agreement between Spain and the United States
5. "Whose government is unostentatious, quite unostentatious, his people will be prosperous, quite prosperous. Whose government is prying, quite prying, his people will be needy, quite needy."
The above quotation reflects the central view of government espoused by which spiritual philosophy?
A. ConfucianismB. BuddhismC. LegalismD. ShintoismE. Daoism
6. From which region did the cuneiform method of writing emerge?
A. EgyptB. MesoamericaC. IndiaD. MesopotamiaE. China
7. The African kingdom of Ghana fell into decline during the eleventh century primarily as a result of
A. invasion by foreign conquerorsB. internal political strifeC. poor agricultural practicesD. weak government leadershipE. violent religious disputes
8. In 1935, Italian forces under the command of Benito Mussolini invaded the nation of
A. SomaliaB. EthiopiaC. EgyptD. LibyaE. Nigeria
9. Which crop's cultivation led to the rise of the Khmer Empire in the region known today as Cambodia?
A. TeaB. OpiumC. RiceD. SugarE. Corn
10. What was the primary reason Russia ended its involvement in World War I?
A. The population devastation wrought by massive casualtiesB. The diplomatic agreement signed with Germany for territory in East EuropeC. The adversarial nature of the relationship with the French and British alliesD. The internal political dissent against the czarist governmentE. The severe economic strain placed on the country by its war efforts
11. All of these emerged during the reign of the Gupta Empire in India EXCEPT
A. funerary custom of satiB. common Arabic numeral systemC. Sanskrit poems of KalidasaD. discovery of Earth's circumferenceE. tradition of viewing cows as sacred
12. The ancient African city of Meroe became a major trading center between 250 BCE and 150 CE due to production of
A. goldB. spicesC. ironD. silverE. grains
13. All of the following were true of the Roman army EXCEPT
A. all citizens who owned land were expected to serve in the armyB. each army legion consisted of several thousand foot soldiersC. the government was responsible for providing the army with weaponsD. every army legion was complemented with a regiment of cavalryE. all peoples allied with Rome were required to provide army troops
14. In the eighteenth century, Prussia rose to prominence under the leadership of the
A. HapsburgsB. BourbonsC. RomanovsD. HohenzollernsE. Carolingians
15. The culture of the Bantu people evolved and spread throughout Africa primarily as a result of
A. warfareB. tradeC. migrationD. agricultureE. religion
16. Which of these BEST describes parallel descent as it was practiced by the Inca in the sixteenth century?
A. Males inherited separately from the mother and father.B. Males inherited from the father, while females inherited from the mother.C. Males inherited from the mother and father, while female were not eligible to inherit.D. Females inherited from the mother and father, while males were not eligible to inherit.E. Females inherited only monetary wealth and not land or property.
17. Which issue did the 1997 Kyoto Protocol address?
A. Nuclear disarmamentB. World povertyC. Energy crisisD. Global warmingE. Water shortage
18. The Korean and Vietnam wars of the twentieth century were MOST similar in that they
A. produced significant territorial gains for communist forcesB. ended with the establishment of a neutral demilitarized zoneC. resulted from a desire to prevent the spread of communismD. originated in nationalistic fervor to be free of colonial controlE. broke out as a result of invasions of democratic territories
19. After being installed as dictator, Julius Caesar did all of the following EXCEPT
A. declared himself a monarchB. established a new solar calendarC. decreased the power of the SenateD. granted citizenship to inhabitants of provincesE. offered public land to soldiers who had served him
20. When Spanish conquistadors entered South America in the 1500s, they were able to conquer the Inca with relative ease because of the Inca's weakness from
A. natural disastersB. famineC. diseaseD. prior invasionE. civil war
21. Which of these was true of both Sparta and Athens?
A. They were democratic governments.B. They denied female participation in politics.C. They made significant contributions to the arts.D. They prohibited the use of gold and silver.E. They required all men to serve in the military.
22. The overthrow of the Qing dynasty in China in 1912 was primarily the result of
A. severe governmental oppressionB. excessive taxation of importsC. rising nationalistic sentimentD. increased foreign pressureE. widespread poverty and famine
23. In the 1500s, which Southeast Asian nation was a Spanish colony that helped facilitate trade with Mexico?
A. BurmaB. IndonesiaC. SiamD. VietnamE. Philippines
24. The collapse of the Carolingian dynasty in the 800s quickly led to the
A. rise of European nation-statesB. introduction of the feudal systemC. beginning of the RenaissanceD. establishment of the Protestant churchE. onset of widespread industrialization
25. Lutheranism and Calvinism were LEAST similar in regard to views on the
A. degree of corruption in the Roman Catholic ChurchB. importance of religion in everyday lifeC. sale of indulgencesD. ability of individuals to affect their fateE. importance of celibacy outside marriage
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